Standard: API 26-60052

SURVEY OF EYE IRRITATION AND LACHRYMATION IN RELATION TO AIR POLLUTION - FINAL REPORT

This standard is available for individual purchase.

or unlock this standard with a subscription to IHS Standards Expert

IHS Standards Expert subscription, simplifies and expedites the process for finding and managing standards by giving you access to standards from over 370 standards developing organizations (SDOs).

FEATURES & BENEFITS
  • Maximize product development and R&D with direct access to over 1.6 million standards
  • Discover new markets: Identify unmet needs and discover next-generation technologies
  • Improve quality by leveraging consistent standards to meet customer and market requirements
  • Minimize risk: Mitigate liability and better understand compliance regulations
  • Boost efficiency: Speed up research, capture and reuse expertise
For additional product information, visit the IHS Standards Expert page.

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE
For more information or a custom quote, visit the IHS Contact Us page for regional contact information.
Scope:

INTRODUCTION

It is widely recognized that feelings of eye irritation are the most frequently reported symptoms associated with the exposure of humans to air pollution. Many studies of this phenomenon have been conducted, particularly over the past 25 years. However, most of these studies have been conducted along disciplinary lines, without viewing the problem in an overall context.

To date, most work has been aimed at the identification of chemical species that cause eye irritation. Yet, as can be seen in the following statement published only a few years ago by the National Air Pollution Control Administration, even this fundamental question remained largely unanswered:

Based on the existing data, it appears that: (1) the effective eye irritants are the products of photochemical reactions; (2) although oxidant concentrations may correlate with the severity of eye irrirtation, a direct cause-effect relationship has not been demonstrated since ozone, the principal contributor to ambient oxidant levels, is not an eye irritant; (3) the precursors of the eye irritants are organic compounds in combination with oxides of nitrogen, the most potent being aromatic hydrocarbons; (4) the chemical identities of the effective irritants in synthetic systems are known as being formaldehyde, peroxybenzoyl nitrate (PBzN), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and acrolein, although the latter two contribute to only a minor extent; and (5) the substances causing eye irritation in the atmosphere have not been completely defined.

Some inquiries also have been made into psychophysical aspects of eye irritation with various levels of success. Specifically, such questions have been addressed as are listed below:

• What is the mechanism that produces discomfort to the eyes in the presence of air pollution?

• What methods of measurement, including both questionnaires and physiologic indices, are available for measuring eye irritation and/or lachrymation?

• What are the dose response relationships between atmospheric concentrations of suspected eye irritants and the kind and degree of discomfort produced?

• Is there a simple indicator which can be used to estimate the eye irritation potential of the atmosphere?

From a societal point of view, these questions must be resolved so that the magnitude of the problem can be understood and appropriate solutions can be effected. The extenet to which they have been answered is the subject of this report.

Organization: American Petroleum Institute
Document Number: api 26-60052
Publish Date: 1974-04-15
Page Count: 72
Available Languages: EN
DOD Adopted: NO
ANSI Approved: NO
Most Recent Revision: YES
Current Version: NO
Status: Inactive
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement