Standard: PAPTAC - A.6
FLOW MEASUREMENTS OF WHITE-WATERS AND WASTES
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Dilution or Chemical Method - A suitable tracer of known concentration is allowed to flow into the stream at a controlled rate. At the point where the flow is to be measured, the concentration of the tracer is determined and the flow is calculated from the degree of dilution. Typical tracers used in this method are concentrated salts (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium thiosulphate and lithium chloride) or dye (particularly fluorescent dye) solutions.
Magnetic Flow Meter - Magnetic flow meters measure the total flow in pipes and therefore need to be installed in such a way as to measure full flow straight up or at a slightly off-vertical incline. The flow must not contain entrapped air. Caution to welders: Welding current can short circuit across the Magnetic flow meter electrodes. Check with those responsible for the maintenance of the Magnetic flow meter BEFORE welding the pipe containing the Magnetic flow meter.
Open Channel Flow Measurement - No single technology is suitable for all open channel flow measurement applications. The choices are ultrasonic, submerged probe, bubbler and area velocity flow.
Orifice - A circular orifice in a metal plate is bolted in between the flanges of pipes. An orifice is therefore a meter easy to install. The accumulation of air or debris in the pipe, however, may interfere with the use of this method.
Parshall Flume - This is a constricted flume operating upon the principle of the Parshall meter. It requires a low head to operate and, because of the smooth flow along the bottom, there is less tendency for the accumulation of debris back of the weir. It often requires substantial reconstruction of the sewer.
Water Meter - There are several types of water meters available for such applications as residential use, commercial / industrial use, fire hydrant meters and others. The main criteria for selection involve the detailed knowledge of the water quality, quantity and application.
Weir - Sharp-crested, double-end contracted; straightside rectangular; and V-notched constitute the simplest and probably the most satisfactory means of measuring flow. However, the limited differential level (or head) available in mill sewers frequently limits utilization of this method, since the required level drop over the weir should equal twice the level height above the weir for the maximum flow.
|Organization:||Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Formerly CPPA|
|Most Recent Revision:||YES|
|Document #||Change Type||Update Date||Revision||Status|
|A.6||Change Type:||Update Date: 1973-12-01||Status: INAC|
This Standard References
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