Standard: TAPPI T 236
KAPPA NUMBER OF PULP
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This kappa number standard applies to many kinds of chemical, semi-chemical, unbleached and semibleached pulps within the kappa number range 1 to 100. Above a kappa number of 100, precision of the test may decrease, and the relationship between kappa number and lignin content may decrease, depending mainly upon the wood species from which the pulp is made. There is no general and unambiguous relationship between the kappa number and the content of lignin of other organic impurities in a particular pulp. The relationship varies according to the wood species and the pulping and delignification procedures used during the pulping process for a specific pulp. Kappa number is essentially a straight line relationship with both klason lignin and chlorine number for pulps below 70% total pulp yields (1). The percentage of klason lignin in a pulp sample whose kappa number is determined by the procedure in this standard test method may be approximated using the following equation
Lignin level (%) = Kappa number × 0.13
If the kappa number is to be used to determine a precise numerical value regarding the amount of lignin present in a specific pulp of interest, a more precise relationship can be established by testing the specific pulp of interest.
As written, this standard is intended for use in the laboratory testing of pulps. It is recognized, however, that kappa number is widely used as an in-process test in the pulp and paper mill, in some cases with modifications.
Section 16 of this standard includes informative information regarding the unintended or unexpected impact that certain deviations from the standard can have on data accuracy, precision, or both.
Likewise, this standard does describe the use of automated instruments for measuring kappa number. The user of such equipment shall verify the applicability of such equipment for any intended use, and do such testing as may be required to determine the agreement of results from any automated testing equipment used with results obtained using the procedure in this test method.
|Document Number:||tappi t 236|
|Change Type:||COMPLETE REVISION|
|Most Recent Revision:||YES|