CEN - EN 791
Drill rigs - Safety
|Publication Date:||1 January 1995|
|ICS Code (Construction equipment):||91.220|
The general term "Drill Rig" covers several differing types of machines for use in the construction industry, water well drilling industry, mining and quarrying, for use above ground as well as underground and for tunnel construction. The differing tasks determine the choice of drilling method and type of machine. For this reason there are many possible ways to separate drill rigs into different groups, e.g. in accordance with:
- The task;
- The drilling method used;
- The cutting removal method;
- The type of construction work.
The methods used for drilling can be basically differentiated in percussive and rotary drilling principles.
Percussive drilling is a method by which the hole is produced by crushing the ground or rock at the bottom of the drill-hole by striking it with the drilling tool and removing the cuttings out of the bore-hole.
Rotary drilling is a method in which the drilling tool at the bottom of the borehole is rotated and at the same time, a feed force is applied by a feed system or drill collar. The ground or rock at the bottom of the borehole is crushed or cut by pressure, shear or tensile stress produced by the different drilling tools. The cuttings are periodically or continuously removed out of the bore hole.
Rotary percussive drilling is performed by a piston striking directly on the bit (down the hole hammer drills) or by percussive energy transmitted via a drill string to the bit. The piston is powered by either hydraulic fluid or compressed air.
At the same time the drill bit is rotated either continuously or intermittently.
The cuttings are continuously removed out of the borehole by a flushing medium, air or fluid which is carried to the drilling tool.
Typical examples of drill rigs covered by this standard are:
- Cable tool drill rig;
- Pile drill rigs;
- Pile top drill rig;
- Raise borer;
- Reverse circulation drill rig;
- Rotary and percussive drill rig for underground drilling;
- Rotary and percussive drill rig for surface drilling;
- Rotary drill rig with power swivel;
- Rotary spindle rig;
- Rotary drill rig for underground use.
A casing or a drilling fluid may be used to stabilize the bore hole.
Drill rigs are stationary during drilling. They may move from one place of work to another, under their own power. Self propelled drill rigs may include those mounted on lorries, wheeled chassis, tractors, crawlers, skid bases (pulled by winch). When drill rigs are mounted on lorries, tractors and trailers, or are wheeled based, transportation may be carried out at higher speeds and on public roads. When designing and constructing these units attention is drawn to regulations covering both the drill rig and traffic regulations.
The questions of safety and ergonomic criteria in this standard mainly refer to the principal work, e.g. when the machine is stationary and drilling. In many cases the driver is also the operator of the drill rig.
This standard deals with the significant hazards pertinent to mechanized drill rigs, when used as intended and under the conditions foreseen by the manufacturer. It specifies requirements of safety concerning the design, construction, operation and maintenance. This standard applies to drill rigs for surface and underground drilling in the tunnelling, mining, construction and water well drilling industries. Casing units are also covered by this standard.
If the base of a drill rig consists of an excavator, crane, etc. it shall be covered by its own standards to the extent the requirements of this standard are not applicable.
NOTE 1 If a drill rig operates with attachments other than those for drilling according to this standard, e.g. pile driving, the safety standards applying to such machines shall also be complied with.
For drill rigs to be used in an explosive atmosphere (coal mining etc.) the relevant standards apply additionally.
NOTE 2 CEN/TC 196 is preparing complementary standards for machines to be used in explosive atmospheres.
Oil and gas industry drill rigs are not covered by this standard.