Controllers for Electric Motor Driven and Diesel Engine Driven Fire Pumps
|Publication Date:||1 February 2018|
This standard encompasses the design and performance requirements for controllers for electric motor driven and diesel engine driven fire pumps used in fire pump service that are designed and installed in accordance with the applicable documents listed in Section 1.8 and the FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets. The intended operation of a fire pump controller is to initiate and sustain the operation of the fire pump driver in the event of a fire. In addition, controllers are tested under specified overload and fault conditions. To this extent the fire pump controller is unique when compared to other industrial motor controllers, and system reliability is improved by provisions for self testing and annunciation of conditions that could result in fire protection impairment.
This standard applies to controllers intended for starting, controlling and stopping stationary, centrifugal and positive displacement, fire pumps, including automatic and non-automatic types for alternating current electric motor or diesel engine driven fire pumps. For the purpose of this standard, the term "controller" indicates a full service controller. Types of controllers covered include diesel engine, electric motor, high (medium) voltage, and variable speed. It is anticipated that a controller only controls a single driver. If multiple pumps operate in parallel as a single unit, one controller can control several drivers. It is also anticipated that fire pump controllers submitted for examination and certification by FM Approvals will be designed to meet the requirements of this standard which encompasses the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection and requirements of other leading documents in the area of fire pump controllers and electrical control devices.
Controllers for electric motor driven, centrifugal fire pumps are intended for use with squirrel cage induction motors or wound rotor induction motors rated 600V or less. Controllers for squirrel cage induction motors may be for across-the-line or reduced inrush starting. Controllers may be provided with integral automatic transfer switches. The design and construction of controllers for electric motor driven fire pumps shall be for use with fire pump motors specified in ANSI/NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, or the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard IEC34-1. As a minimum, the controllers shall be suitable for National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) design "B" motors, as defined in NEMA standard MG-1, Motors and Generators Revision 2. Controllers shall be suitable for motor starting codes "F" or "G" (per NEMA MG-1) for motors at or above 15 hp (11 kW). Large horsepower motors, those in excess of 500 hp (375 kW), are not required to comply with NEMA MG-1. These large motors are allowed to exceed the horsepower and locked rotor current designations for NEMA design "B" motors as specified in ANSI/NFPA 20. The associated fire pump controller must be designed accordingly.
Limited service controllers are not FM Approved devices however the following is provided as reference for the reader since these devices do exist within the fire protection community. Limited service controllers are automatic controllers intended for across-theline starting of squirrel cage induction motors rated 30 hp (20 kW) or less, and 600V or less. Limited service controllers may be provided with integral automatic transfer switches. Limited service controllers are intended for use with limited service pumps and were originally accepted by ANSI/NFPA 20 for specific light hazard type occupancies since at the time, full service fire pump controllers were not designed for less than 20 hp (15 kW) rated motors. Since many controller manufacturers now provide full service fire pump controllers for motors rated less than 20 hp (15 kW), there is no longer any need for limited service devices.
High voltage fire pump controllers (also referred to as medium voltage) are intended for use with squirrel cage induction motors rated 601V - 7.2 kV A.C. This upper range may vary by country and jurisdiction.
Diesel engine fire pump controllers rated nominal 24V D.C. or less are intended for use with fire pump engines, and for use with A.C. power supplies (mains) on branch circuits of 600 V A.C. or less rated for 50 Hz or 60 Hz, or both.
Variable speed fire pump controllers for electric motor driven, centrifugal fire pumps are intended for use with squirrel cage induction, inverter duty rated, motors rated 600V or less, and rated for 50 Hz or 60 Hz. This type of controller uses a variable frequency drive to change the speed of the electric motor and the resultant pressure and flow output of the fire pump in response to feedback from a pressure sensor on the discharge side of the fire pump. The variable speed controller maintains system design pressure by monitoring changes in pressure demand for the fire protection system and adjusting the pump speed according to that demand.
Variable speed devices for diesel engine drivers are not within the scope of this standard since these devices are not part of the fire pump controller. Variable speed devices for diesel engine drivers are mechanical devices that attach directly to the diesel engine fuel system. The output pressure of the fire pump is changed by controlling the fuel intake governor to the engine. This device is covered in FM Class Standard 1333, Diesel Engine Fire Pump Drivers. Controllers for use with these diesel engines shall provide the required system overpressure alarm per ANSI/NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, and shall also include the pressure sensor.
Controllers for electric motor driven fire pumps always include suitable short circuit protection as an integral part of the controller. This protection is typically provided by circuit breakers except for high (medium) voltage controllers. These controllers may include an integral power transfer switch. These controllers/automati
Controllers for diesel engine driven fire pumps include electrical circuits that operate various control and supervisory functions such as remote control (starting), alarms, signals, indicators, and the proper operation of battery chargers.
The purpose of this standard is to characterize the unique features of fire pump controllers, prescribe a procedure for exercising the controllers to verify their performance and reliability, and to ensure that effective quality controls are being implemented by the manufacturer to ensure a consistently fabricated and reliable product.
The object of this standard is to:
a. Define the unique characteristics of fire pump controllers, their associated equipment and their operational functions;
b. Prescribe the conditions with which fire pump controllers shall comply with reference to:
1. Their construction;
2. Their critical components including the mounting, arrangement, wiring and connections;
3. The degrees of protection provided by their enclosures;
4. Their modes of actuation;
5. Their operation and behavior under normal, overload and short circuit conditions;
6. Their capability to annunciate significant events; and,
7. Their electromagnetic compatibility for the environment into which they are placed;
c. Detail the performance tests for confirming that these conditions have been met, and the methods to be adopted for these tests;
d. Identify the information to be provided with the equipment such as markings, labels, drawings and information provided on or within the equipment.
In this context, this standard gives the requirements for all of the electrical functions associated with both the electric motor driven and the diesel engine driven fire pumps. Special applications such as explosive atmospheres, nuclear installations, ships, aircraft etc. are not covered by this standard. Referring to electric power sources, the requirements of this standard apply only to the extent that they place limits on the nature, behavior and characteristics of the electrical energy that is supplied to the service entrance (see UL 508 and UL 869A, or IEC 60364-5-55).
The requirements of this standard do not apply to the method or means by which the electrical energy is generated nor do they apply to the installation between the origin of the installation and the fire pump controller, which are to be found in ANSI/NFPA 70 NEC or the IEC 60364 series. This standard does not apply to diesel engine driven electric generators which may be associated with a stationary fire pump installation.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) considerations are correlated with other IEC standards for similar products:
a. For electric fire pump controllers, EMC requirements are covered by this standard; and,
b. For diesel engine fire pump controllers, D.C. batteries are the required source of electrical power for starting and monitoring the engine. A.C. (mains) power to the controller is used for battery charging. A.C. (mains) power provided to the controller may also be used for other small devices that have dedicated factory-equipped field terminals and overcurrent protection, such as pump room space heaters, pump room dampers and engine oil heaters, at the discretion of the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). EMC requirements for diesel engine fire pump controllers are covered by this standard.
This standard states FM Approvals' criteria for electric motor and diesel engine driven fire pump controllers that start, control, monitor, and stop pump drivers for fire protection systems. These controllers must have an extended service life, throughout which they must be capable of operating reliably during emergency fire incidents, despite being idle for extended periods.
FM Approvals' criteria include, but are not limited to, structural features, performance requirements, marking requirements, examination of manufacturing facility(ies), audit of quality assurance procedures, and a follow-up program.
Approval standards are intended to verify that the product described will meet stated conditions of performance, safety and quality useful to the ends of property conservation.