Standard Reference Radiographs of Investment Steel Castings for Aerospace Applications
|Publication Date:||1 December 2020|
|ICS Code (Steels):||49.025.10|
The reference radiographs provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in thin-wall steel investment castings.2 Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct reference radiographs which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following:
A guide enabling recognition of thin-wall steel casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through radiographic examination.
Example radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications, and drawings.
Two illustration categories are covered as follows:
Graded-Six common discontinuity types each illustrated in eight degrees of progressively increasing severity.
Ungraded-Twelve single illustrations of additional discontinuity types and of patterns and imperfections not generally regarded as discontinuities.
The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1 in. (25.4 mm) in thickness.
This document may be used where there is no other applicable document existing or for other material thicknesses for which it is found to be applicable and for which agreement has been reached between the purchaser and manufacturer.
NOTE 1-The set of reference radiographs, produced with X-rays in the range from 130 to 250 kVp, consist of 16 plates (81⁄2 by 11 in. (216 by 279 mm)) in a 93⁄4 by 111⁄2 in. (248 by 292 mm) ring binder.
From time to time, there may be minor changes to the process for manufacturing of the reference radiograph adjunct materials. These changes could include changes in the films or processing chemicals used, changes in the dies or printing for the cardboard mats, etc.; however, in all cases, these changes are reviewed by the Illustration Monitoring Subcommittee and all reference radiographs are reviewed against a fixed prototype image to ensure that there are no changes to the acceptance level represented by the reference radiographs. Therefore, the adjunct reference radiographs remain valid for use with this standard regardless of the date of production or the revision level of the text standard.
These film reference radiographs are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aerospace investment castings when performing digital X-ray imaging. When performing digital X-ray imaging of these castings, refer to Digital Reference Images E2660.
Units-The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2 The reference radiographs are considered to be applicable to all thin-wall steel castings, requiring close tolerances. Such castings generally include those made by the lost wax, frozen mercury, ceramicast, or shell mold processes.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard