Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development, 2008 Revision (Supersedes NASA-HDBK-1001)
|Publication Date:||1 January 2006|
Atmospheric phenomena play a significant role in the design and operation of aerospace vehicles and in the integrity of aerospace systems and elements. The terrestrial environment design criteria guidelines given in this handbook are based on statistics and models of atmospheric and climatic phenomena relative to various aerospace design, development, and operational issues. This revision contains new and updated material in most sections.
Aerospace vehicle design guidelines are provided for the following environmental phenomena: winds; atmospheric models and thermodynamic properties; thermal radiation; U.S. and world surface extremes; humidity; precipitation, fog, and icing; cloud phenomena and cloud cover models; atmospheric electricity; atmospheric constituents; aerospace vehicle exhaust and toxic chemical release; tornadoes and hurricanes; geologic hazards; and sea state. Sections 15 and 16 include information on mission analysis, prelaunch monitoring, flight evaluation, physical constants, and metric/English unit conversion factors.
In general, this document does not specify how the designer should use the data in regard to a specific aerospace vehicle design. Such specifications may be established only through the analysis and study of a particular design problem. Although of operational significance, descriptions of some atmospheric conditions have been omitted since they are not of direct concern for an aerospace vehicle system's design, the primary emphasis of this document. Induced environments (vehicle caused) may be more critical than the natural environment for certain vehicle operational situations. In some cases, the combination of natural and induced environments will be more severe than either environment alone. Induced environments are considered in other aerospace vehicle design criteria documents, which should be consulted for such information.
The natural environment criteria guidelines presented in this document were formulated based on discussions with, and requests from, engineers involved in aerospace vehicle development and operations. Therefore, they represent responses to actual engineering problems and not just a general compilation of environmental data. NASA Centers, various other Government agencies, and their associated contractors responsible for the design, mission planning, and operational studies use this document extensively. The Glossary of Meteorology and Glossary of Weather and Climate, published by the American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108, should be consulted for the definitions of environment terms not otherwise defined in this handbook.
This document also does not include information on the natural environment above 90 km. A recently issued document sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA), ECSS-E-ST-10-04C, "Space Engineering- Space Environment," provides an excellent summary from the engineering application viewpoint on all aspects of the space environment. It may be downloaded from the European Cooperation for Space Standardization Web site . Also, the NASA Marshall Solar Activity monthly document that provides current and future estimates of 13-mo Zurich smoothed solar and geomagnetic activity may be downloaded from .