NPFC - MIL-HDBK-785
DESIGN OF TOWED ARTILLERY WEAPON SYSTEMS
|Publication Date:||30 March 1990|
The purpose of this handbook is to present and illustrate design methods for towed artillery systems and their components. Towed systems are artillery weapons transported by prime movers that are separate from the artillery weapon. Towed artillery systems are capable of emplacement, delivery of fire, and displacement by a field artillery crew. The towed artillery weapon system consists of
2. Tube and breech
3. Recoil mechanism
4: Carriage structures
5. Mechanisms allowing for elevation, traverse, and emplacement
6. Fire control equipment
7. Travel gear
8. Prime mover.
Design of ammunition, tube and breech, recoil mechanism, fire control equipment, and prime mover are treated in related handbooks. The component designs of the remaining weapon subsystems are discussed in this handbook. Also system design, including trade offs among the various subsystems comprising the towed artillery system, is treated in this handbook together with tradeoff considerations involving components and subsystems that are treated in the related design handbooks.
Towed artillery system design and integration are defined as the process of meeting the requirements for towed artillery weapon systems within both user-imposed and technological constraints. Inputs to system design are provided by user requirements on range, payload, precision, rate of fire, weapon versatility, level of invulnerability, allowed weight, airdrop, transportability, durability, reliability, maintainability, and other pertinent demands placed on the weapon system. Human factors considerations, technological constraints, weapon-soil interaction, and other related constraints play an important role in creating a suitable design. Although a great deal of effort during development of a towed artillery weapon system is devoted to component design and development, it is important that the system designer pay careful attention to system level tradeoffs and interfaces among the components of the artillery system.
One of the basic functions of system design is selection of a principle of operation of the towed artillery weapon. In this principle such alternatives as conventional hydropneumatic versus soft recoil mechanisms, on-carriage versus off-carriage traverse, use of muzzle brake, and use of ground-anchoring techniques are considered. In conjunction with component design specialists, the artillery system engineer must
1. Select candidate components and subsystems that offer the potential for meeting system requirements and constraints.
2. Create a system model that reflects component performance and limitations.
3. Use system models to define component and subsystem performance requirements and carry out tradeoff analysis that guides design of components. These system design activities dominate the preliminary design phase of an artillery system and must continue throughout development of the entire weapon system.
Examples of system level considerations that influence component design are user requirements on emplacement time, traversing capability, and soil conditions on which the weapon must be capable of operating. These requirements may determine the acceptability of using stakes and spades as ground anchors and lead to the selection of a conventional hydropneumatic or a soft recoil mechanism, and-after considering the inherent advantages of each-the loads that must be transmitted to ground and the system weight. Basic tradeoffs must often be developed for competing design approaches and negotiations entered into with the user community in order to arrive at decisions leading to subsystem selection and specific design requirements.
The scope of this handbook includes both system level design and detailed design of mechanisms, equilibrators, bearings, cradles, and carriages. Preliminary design and tradeoff analysis is presented and includes considerations of ammunition, tube and breech, recoil mechanism, fire control equipment, human factors, and other components comprising the artillery weapon. System kinematic and dynamic modeling methods are presented and used in system level tradeoff determination and in the definition of component load-carrying requirements. The results of preliminary system design and tradeoff analysis provide the basis for the discussion of the detailed design of mechanisms, equilibrators, bearings, cradles, and carriages. Design for strength is a major consideration in virtually all component designs presented in this handbook. Classical mechanics of material approaches to stress analysis and the more modern finite element method of stress analysis are used in design of components. The designer is also required to satisfy all military specifications and standards applicable to the component designed. A wide range of mechanical design techniques and technologies are involved in system and component design.