Standard Practice for the Design and Operation of Precipitation Enhancement Projects
|Publication Date:||1 January 2004|
INTRODUCTION TO PRECIPITATION ENHANCEMENT PROJECTS
Traditionally, water resources development pertains to building dams and reservoirs, installing pipelines or using concrete to line ditches or canals, or in some way storing or distributing the available water. In many cases, however, there is only one means to increase water supplies, and that is to develop atmospheric water. In many areas of the United States and the world, there is a need for new water supplies. In many of these areas, cloud seeding technology can be useful (Summers and Keyes 1995).
Engineers and water planners must realize that both the direct and indirect effects of any cloud seeding project must be predicted, recognized, and evaluated throughout the entire project. The major parts of the planning and implementation of a cloud seeding project should include the following (Keyes et al. 1995):
• Origin and justification of the overall project.
• An interdisciplinary approach to decision-making. Political and institutional aspects may be the most important.
• Feasibility studies that include a clear statement of the cloud seeding program. All weather modification plans should be evaluated by weather modification managers who are certified by the WMA.
• Design, operations, and evaluation of a cloud seeding program that should include long-range as well as short-range aspects in the interpretation of results and the practical significance of the overall findings.
• Project control that consists of technical advisory and citizen advisory groups that are involved in the evaluation, and a rapid means of communication to avoid potentially hazardous conditions.
• Project management that consists of a large amount of information dissemination, i.e., weekly and monthly updating of project progress and educational news releases to the public.
This document, Standard Practice for the Design and Operation of Precipitation Enhancement Projects, is intended to provide water resources managers and others with information and references that they will need to make a decision on the use of cloud seeding to augment available water supplies.