Standard Guide for Beneficial Use of Landfills and Chemically Impacted Sites
|Publication Date:||15 February 2016|
This guide provides a beneficial, acceptable use framework for the development of: (1) Inactive and pre-RCRA (or pre-regulatory) solid waste landfills that are considered orphan or latchkey to be repurposed, despite having offsite migration impacts of landfill gases and/or leachate, albeit at de minimis levels; (2) other types of unregulated waste landfills; (3) sites impacted by chemical releases; (4) legacy or ongoing, intentional, or unintentional fill placement; (5) closed, open, or operating post-RCRA landfills or landfills in the planning stages such that materials may be placed in ways that optimize a landfill's use in future years; and (6) underutilized or heavily used (for example, pedestrian; recreational; or repetitive, entertainment, single event) chemically impacted sites. Also, this guide identifies land usage and conditions of adjacent/nonwaste portions of a landfill (that is, buffer areas not within the footprint of an actual landfill or chemically impacted site itself) that should be evaluated before a site use is considered acceptable.
Provided herein is instruction on evaluating and judging the acceptability of: (1) Chemical exposure barrier(s) (and other engineering and institutional control measures) in place between actual or potential chemically impacted soil; and/or (2) time of use restriction(s) established at a waste / chemically impacted site.
Additionally provided is instruction on assessing the terminal conditions at a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill; that is, flows of methane below which passive rather than active venting is recommended, and flows of leachate of a long-term, consistent quality that is clean enough to allow direct discharge of the liquid to surface waters. See Appendix X3 for additional information.
This guide complements solid waste regulatory programs where guidance on beneficial usage is unavailable or insufficient, thereby improving the chance that such sites may be repurposed for public and/or private benefit.
This guide may be implemented in conjunction with ASTM's Standard Guide for Integrating Sustainable Objectives in Cleanups (Guide E2876-13) with respect to community engagement activities. See Guide E2876 for more information.
This guide should not be used as a justification to avoid, minimize, or delay implementation of specific cleanup activities as required by law or regulation.
This guide should not be used to characterize (that is, environmentally assess) a site for the purpose of ownership transfer, although it could supplement other environmental assessments that are used in such a transfer.
Users of this guide make professional judgments that only apply to a particular site, at a particular date and time, and do not warrant safe conditions existing beyond that date. It is not impossible that a significant environmental exposure condition exists at a site but was missed by the user of this guide or the Environmental Professional who led the evaluation, or that the condition was introduced subsequent to the evaluation. The evaluation of a site by an Environmental Professional is not intended to be exhaustive; there may be significant unknown conditions that may not be apparent through reasonable site characterization efforts. Further, the user of the guide should advise the site owner to maintain any Environmental Professional-recomme
Users of this guide should comply with all applicable federal, State, and local statutes and regulations requiring and/or relating to protection of human health. This includes, and is not limited to, laws and regulations relating to health and safety of the people using a developed waste / chemically impacted site, the surrounding community, and/or public sector and private sector personnel who are involved in the management or oversight of waste / chemically impacted sites. See (1)2 for useful information on land revitalization and (2) for information on chemical safety.
Use of this guide is considered a sustainable urban governance practice as identified by Rowland (2008) (3).
This guide is composed of the following sections: Referenced Documents; Terminology; Significance and Use; Planning and Scoping; Site Use Activity Evaluation and Selection Process; and Site Use Activity Evaluation, Reporting, and Documentation.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2 The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end of this standard.