API RP 1176
Recommended Practice for Assessment and Management of Cracking in Pipelines
|Publication Date:||1 June 2016|
This recommended practice (RP) is applicable to any pipeline system used to transport hazardous liquid or natural gas, including those defined in U.S. Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 195 and 192.
This RP is specifically designed to provide the operator with a description of industry-proven practices in the integrity management of cracks and threats that give rise to cracking mechanisms. The guidance is largely targeted to the line pipe along the right-of-way (ROW), but some of the processes and approaches can be applied to pipeline facilities, including pipeline stations, terminals, and delivery facilities associated with pipeline systems. Defects associated with lap-welded (LW) pipe and selective seam weld corrosion (SSWC) are not covered within this RP.
This RP presents the pipeline industry's understanding of pipeline cracking. Mechanisms that cause cracking are discussed, methods to estimate the failure pressure of cracks are reviewed, and methods to estimate crack growth are presented. Selection of the appropriate integrity assessment method for various types of cracking, operating conditions, and pipeline characteristics is discussed. This RP also reviews current knowledge about in-line inspection (ILI) technology and in-the-ditch (ITD) nondestructive evaluation technology. A methodology for responding to ILI indications and specific criteria for when to respond to certain results are presented. Applicable repair techniques are reviewed. Sections are included for the discussion of reassessment interval determination and the consideration of appropriate preventive and mitigative measures. Finally, some meaningful performance metrics for measuring the effectiveness of a crack management program are discussed.
The technical discussion about crack formation, growth, and failure is to provide the knowledge needed by operators to effectively make integrity decisions about managing cracking on their pipeline systems.