ISO - IWA 24
Non-sewered sanitation systems - General safety and performance requirements for design and testing
|Publication Date:||1 September 2016|
|ICS Code (Sanitary installations):||91.140.70|
|ICS Code (Environmental economics. Sustainability):||13.020.20|
This document specifies technical requirements, test methods, and sustainability considerations for non‐sewered sanitation systems. A non‐sewered sanitation system, for the purposes of this document, is a sanitation system that 1) is not connected to a networked sewer system and 2) collects, conveys, and fully treats the specific input, to allow for safe reuse or disposal of the generated output.
This document is applicable to sanitation systems containing both frontend and backend components that are either manufactured as one package or designed to be integrated as a set of pre‐fabricated elements to be assembled in one location without the use of any additional engineering and/or civil engineering structures. This document also applies to individual pre‐fabricated backend components that are designed to be integrated with one or more specified frontends that meet relevant national and/or international standards without demanding any additional engineering and/or civil engineering structures. This document is not applicable to sanitation systems constructed in‐situ
NOTE Assembly without the use of any additional engineering and/or civil engineering structures means that pre‐fabricated components of non‐sewered sanitation systems within the scope of this document do not require further construction in order to be integrated into complete sanitation systems that can perform all of their specified operations.
This document is applicable to sanitation systems that perform their treatment processes in one location through one or more treatment units comprising the backend of the sanitation system. This document does not address transportation of treated output outside of the sanitation system (e.g. manual transport, transportation by truck or trunk pipes) for further treatment, reuse, or disposal. Furthermore, neither any treatment processes taking place at another location separate from that of the frontend and backend components, nor reuse and disposal are addressed in this document.
Figure 1 provides, within the blue dashed lines, a conceptualization of the scope of the document and the areas with which it is concerned. The document sets minimum requirements for treatable input (see 4.3.1), and excludes greywater as input aside from greywater from hand washing. Requirements for the output of sanitation systems are set forth in this document regarding solid and liquid materials as well as odor, air, and noise emissions (see 4.4).
Within sanitation systems to which this document applies, the frontend includes user interfaces such as a urinal, squatting pan, or WC pan, which may apply evacuation mechanisms ranging from conventional flush, pour flush, and dry toilets to novel evacuation mechanisms such as those employing mechanical forces requiring little to no water. Conventional and novel evacuation mechanisms are in some cases combined with urine diversion applications (e.g. urine diversion flush toilet, urine diversion dry toilet). Backend treatment technologies and processes of non‐sewered sanitation systems range from biological or chemical to physical mechanisms (e.g. aerobic digestion, combustion, electrochemical disinfection, membranes). Some systems use only one of these technologies or processes while others apply various mechanisms in combination through serial treatment units.
This document is intended to serve as a basis by which to certify non‐sewered sanitation systems. Such certification would convey the safety, functionality, usability, reliability, and maintainability of the system, as well as its compatibility with environmental protection goals. This document does not provide guidelines for selection, installation, operation and maintenance, and management of sanitation systems and neither incorporates nor substitutes for manufacturers' instructions and user manuals.
The technical requirements specified in this document are based on hazard and risk assessments following sound engineering practices. Thus, this document provides fundamental requirements for ensuring health and safety. A list of significant hazards addressed in this document is provided in B.2.