Fermentation of organic materials - Characterization of the substrate, sampling, collection of material data, fermentation tests
|Publication Date:||1 November 2016|
|ICS Code (Special wastes):||13.030.30|
|ICS Code (Biological sources and alternative sources of energy):||27.190|
This standard provides rules for assessing the fermentability of organic materials and the necessary equipment and apparatus required for the corresponding test set-ups. Before this area is tackled, however, definitions of important terms are provided. In addition, this standard will provide information on characterising - and thus on describing - the substrates and specifies the requirements as to how certain variables characterising the substrates must be measured in accordance with the current state of knowledge and science if comparability is to be ensured. Furthermore, instructions are also given on how a representative sample should be taken from the various material flows available. To sum up, the following aspects are treated in the present standard:
• terms and definitions
Brief definitions are provided here of the most important terms found in constant use in the field of biogas production and utilisation; this should ensure that all parties involved use specific terms in exactly the same way
• characterisation of the substrates
Following a general characterisation and classification into particular groups, the possibilities of a basic fermentability of an organic material can be estimated. This will also yield important information about handling the material and about special factors which need to be taken into consideration in the planning of a biogas installation in which materials of this kind are to be used.
• sampling and preparation of samples
The way in which samples are collected and prepared forms the fundamental basis for a transparent examination of an organic material. The basic rules and a standardised procedure are described.
• determination of material data
Chemical analysis of an organic material allows a far-reaching assessment to be made of its potential fermentability. Suitable analytical methods for this are suggested and evaluated.
• batch fermentation tests and continuous fermentation tests
Fermentation tests provide concrete information about the fermentability of organic material flows. Depending on the objectives that have been defined and on what is technically possible, the gas yield and the course of fermentation can be determined by means of batch fermentation tests or continuous fermentation tests. Methods suitable for this are described. This standard is addressed to laboratories, planners, plant constructors and operators of biogas installations who wish to investigate the use of organic materials. It can be applied to all organic materials whose fermentation is to be studied. Individual sections describe particular applications.