Standard Guide for Personal Samplers of Health-Related Aerosol Fractions
|Publication Date:||1 April 2007|
|ICS Code (Ambient atmospheres):||13.040.20|
This guide defines conventions for personal samplers of specific
This guide is complementary to Test Method D 4532, which describes the performance of a particular instrument, the 10-mm cyclone, and operational procedures for use. The procedures, specifically the optimal flow rate, are still valid although the estimated accuracy differs somewhat from use with previous aerosol fraction definitions. Details on this instrument and also the Higgins-Dewell cyclone have recently been published (5-7).
The definitions given here were adopted by the agencies listed in 1.1 in part on the basis of expected health effects of the different size fractions, but in part allowing for available sampling equipment. The original adoption by CEN was, in fact, for the eventual setting of common standards by the EC countries while permitting the use of a variety of instrumentation. Deviations of the sampling conventions from healthrelated effects are as follows:
The inhalable fraction actually depends on the specific air speed and direction, on the breathing rate, and on whether breathing is by nose or mouth. The values given in the inhalable convention are for representative values of breathing rate and represent averages over all wind directions.
The respirable and thoracic fractions vary from individual to individual and with the breathing pattern. The conventions are approximations to the average case.
Each convention applies strictly to a fraction penetrating to a region, rather than depositing. Therefore, samples collected according to the conventions may only approximate correlations with biological effects. For example, the respirable convention overestimates the fraction of very small particles deposited in the alveolar region of the respiratory system because some of the particles are actually exhaled without being deposited (8). In many workplaces, these very small particles contribute insignificantly to the sampled mass. Furthermore, the large variability between individuals and the details of clearance may be as important as this type of effect.
The thoracic convention applies to mouth breathing, for which aerosol collection is greater than during nose breathing.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2 The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end of this standard.