Eco-Efficient and Sustainable Concrete Incorporating Recycled Post-Consumer and Industrial Byproducts
|Publication Date:||1 March 2017|
With increasing world population and urbanization, the depletion of natural resources and generation of waste materials is becoming a considerable challenge. As the number of humans has exceeded 7 billion people, there are about 1.1 billion vehicles on the road, with 1.7 billion new tires produced and over 1 billion waste tires generated each year. In the USA, it was estimated in 2011 that 10% of scrap tires was being recycled into new products, and over 50% is being used for energy recovery, while the rest is being discarded into landfills or disposed. The proportion of tires disposed worldwide into landfills was estimated at 25% of the total number of waste tires. Likewise, in 2013, Americans generated about 254 million tons of trash. They only recycled and composted about 87 million tons (34.3%) of this material. On average, Americans recycled and composted 1.51 pounds of individual waste generation of around 4.4 pounds per person per day. In 2011, glass accounted for 5.1 percent of total discarded municipal solid waste in the USA. Moreover, energy production and other sectors are generating substantial amounts of sludge, plastics and other post-consumer and industrial by-products. In the pursuit of its sustainability goals, the construction industry has a potential of beneficiating many such byproducts in applications that could, in some cases, outperform the conventional materials using virgin ingredients. This Special Publication led by the American Concrete Institute's Committee 555 on recycling is a contribution towards greening concrete through increased use of recycled materials, such as scrap tire rubber, post-consumer glass, reclaimed asphalt pavements, incinerated sludge ash, and recycled concrete aggregate. Advancing knowledge in this area should introduce the use of recycled materials in concrete for applications never considered before, while achieving desirable performance criteria economically, without compromising the long-term behavior of concrete civil infrastructure.