ISO - TR 27915
Carbon dioxide capture, transportation and geological storage - Quantification and verification
|Publication Date:||1 August 2017|
|ICS Code (Pollution, pollution control and conservation):||13.020.40|
This document presents a review of publicly available literature identifying materially relevant issues and options relating to "good practices" for quantifying and verifying GHG emissions and reductions at the project level. Its scope covers all components of the CCS chain (e.g. capture, transport, storage) and includes a lifecycle assessment approach to estimating project level emissions and emission reductions from project assessment, construction and operations, through to completion and post-closure activities. This document considers the following at the project level:
- a variety of Q&V related boundaries applicable to all components of a CCS project;
- the composition of the CO2 stream, including its purity, and requirements for measuring and verifying the physical and chemical state of the CO2 stream in CCS projects;
- identification and quantification of GHG emissions and reductions across integrated CCS components;
- monitoring objectives, methodologies, and sampling strategies, including locations, periods, and frequencies;
- GHG data collection and reporting;
- verifying GHG expectations with agreed verification criteria;
- life cycle assessment (LCA) of CCS projects.
Q&V approaches to measuring and verifying GHG emissions, reductions and removals for CCS projects continue to evolve. This document identifies the gaps and limitations in current levels of knowledge, of empirical methodologies and application of good practices for CCS Q&V.
This is a Technical Report and so does not seek to recommend technical standards for any specific Q&V method. This document cites existing ISO standards and other good-practice protocols that have been developed to quantify and verify GHGs from integrated CCS projects.
This document aims to inform all stakeholders who influence, or are directly or indirectly involved in the reporting of emissions and emission reductions, or removals, for CCS projects. Stakeholders may include, for example, CCS project developers and operators, policy makers, regulators and other government oversight bodies, verifying entities, the financial community, equipment manufacturers, owners of other resources (e.g. water, coal, oil and gas), and members of the general public.
Review of the references This document makes reference to a variety of sub-national, national and international laws applicable to CCS projects; current Q&V practices to measure GHG emissions and reductions, or removals, by CCS projects; existing ISO standards that are directly and/or indirectly relevant to CCS projects; identified stakeholder requirements; and the anticipated outcomes of other ISO/TC 265 WGs.
The discussion of Q&V is applicable to both onshore and offshore environments. At this stage, the offshore experience is from two Norwegian projects, Sleipner and Snohvit, while the onshore experience draws on an expanding range of storage, and CO2 EOR projects, in North America and China; and from a cumulative body of research, pilot and demonstration projects, in Algeria, Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the USA.
References are cited throughout this document, including relevant standards and protocols. These references are listed in alphabetic order in the Bibliography.