CSA ISO/IEC TR 21000-11
Information technology - Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) - Part 11: Evaluation Tools for Persistent Association Technologies
|Publication Date:||1 January 2007|
|ICS Code (Information coding):||35.040|
MPEG-21 will provide an over-arching framework within which many elements of multimedia are brought together. In particular, coded representations of content will be juxtaposed with metadata descriptors and the Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) protection that apply to the content. This leads to a requirement for tools that can create and maintain (e.g. detect or extract) an association between content, metadata and IPMP elements within MPEG-21. Tools based on the techniques known as "watermarking" and "fingerprinting" offer a means to form associations between multimedia elements and the related information, where that association can be directly embedded within or inferred from the content itself. Furthermore, tools based on watermarking and fingerprinting allow such inferences to persist in the face of adaptation of the content. Such tools are termed Persistent Association Technologies (PAT) and within MPEG-21 there is a need to assess and evaluate these tools. This report sets out a process and plan for evaluating PAT. It does not provide information on how to normatively interpret results of tests conducted in accordance with this Technical Report as the selection of a set of specific evaluation procedures depends on the application scenario.
This Technical Report focuses on the evaluation of two classes of technology: watermarks and fingerprints (see Definitions in Subclause 2.1) when applied to Audio content.
It is expected that the scope of this Technical Report will be enhanced in future to cover other media types including video, still pictures and text.
This Technical Report describes evaluation methodologies for only some of the characteristics of these technologies. In particular, it does not attempt to define methodologies for evaluating the resistance of these technologies to deliberate attack on the association. Further detail is contained in Clause 7.
Background to ISO/IEC TR 21000-11
Recognising that the standardisation of Persistent Association Technologies (PAT) is not currently thought to be viable in the context of MPEG-21 and the wider international standardisation community, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG) examined options which would allow it to assist the adoption of PAT by industry.
A call for Requirements on PAT was issued and generated numerous responses. The analysis of these responses has allowed WG11 to understand the characteristics of PAT that may be required. This analysis also showed both a need and a possibility to establish a consensus approach to the Evaluation of such technologies which would be useful in selecting appropriate technologies for particular applications.
Organisation of the Document
ISO/IEC 21000-11 contains nine clauses. Clauses 1 and 2 set out the scope of this Technical Report, provide definition for terms and a list of abbreviations used and not used.
Clause 3 then familiarises the reader four different persistent association technology paradigms by providing a reference architecture for each of the discussed PAT paradigms1). Clauses 4 and 5 contain short use case scenarios for how to use Persistent Association Technologies, and how to evaluate such technologies.
Clause 6 then lists the seven characteristic parameters of PAT that can be used to evaluate such technologies. Before the main discussion on the evaluation methodology is discussed in Clause 8, Clause 7 contains a discussion on issues such as security and malicious attacks.
1) While Clause 3 introduces four PATs (headers, digital signatures, watermarks and fingerprints), the remainder of this Technical Report concentrates on watermarks and fingerprints only.