Geological storage of carbon dioxide
|Publication Date:||1 January 2012|
(a) establishes requirements and recommendations for the geological storage of carbon dioxide. The purpose of these requirements is to promote environmentally safe and long-term containment of carbon dioxide in a way that minimizes risks to the environment and human health.
(b) is primarily applicable to saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and does not preclude its application to storage associated with hydrocarbon recovery.
(c) includes, but is not limited to, the safe design, construction, operation, maintenance, and closure of storage sites.
(d) provides recommendations for the development of management documents, community engagement, risk assessment, and risk communication.
(1) This Standard recognizes that site selection and management are unique for each project and that intrinsic engineering risk(s) and uncertainties will be dealt with on a site-specific basis.
(2) With reference to not precluding storage associated with hydrocarbon recovery, it is explicit that this Standard does not establish requirements or recommendations associated with enhanced hydrocarbon recovery using CO2. While not specifically intended to cover storage associated with enhanced hydrocarbon recovery operations, aspects of this Standard could be used for projects considering the long term storage of CO2 that occurs as an incident of routine enhanced recovery operations.
This Standard applies to the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) streams in geological media as defined in Clause 1.1.
Note: Depending on the storage unit, the stream could include impurities for which health, environmental, and safety risks require proper evaluation. This Standard does not allow waste and other matter to be added for the purpose of disposing of the added waste or other matter. However, a CO2 stream can contain incidental associated substances from the source, capture, or injection process and/or trace substances added to assist in CO2 migration detection.
The project life cycle covers all aspects, periods, and stages of the storage project, beginning with those necessary to initiate the project (including site screening, selection, characterization, assessment, engineering, permitting, and construction), that lead to the start of injection and proceeding through subsequent operations until cessation of injection; and culminating in the post-injection period, which can include a closure period and a post-closure period. This Standard does not specify post-closure period requirements. Figure 1 illustrates the confines, limits, and boundaries of this Standard.
Note: This Standard specifies that the post-closure period occurs only if a transfer of responsibility to a designated authority or other responsible entity takes place. If a transfer does not occur, the project remains in the closure period and formal site closure does not occur.
This Standard does not apply to
(a) the post-closure period;
(b) CO2 injection and storage in unmineable coal beds, basalt formations, shales, and salt caverns;
(c) underground storage in materials involving the use of any form of containers; and
(d) disposal of acid gas.
Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.
Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.
Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.
The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.