(R) Cargo Restraint Straps - Utilization Guidelines
|Publication Date:||1 November 2017|
This Aerospace Recommended Practice aims at providing general utilization guidelines and calculation methods adequate to guarantee the effectiveness and ultimate load strength of tie-down/lashing arrangements performed to restrain cargo on board civil transport aircraft during flight:
a. Cargo loaded and tied down onto airworthiness approved air cargo pallets, themselves restrained into aircraft lower deck, main deck or upper deck cargo systems meeting the restraint requirements of air cargo pallets approved in accordance with NAS 3610 or AS36100, or
b. Additional tie-down on aircraft structure when necessitated by pallet maximum gross mass or centre of gravity location, or
c. Individual pieces of cargo, or pieces of cargo placed onto an unrestrained ("floating") pallet into either lower deck, main deck or upper deck containerized cargo compartments of an aircraft, or
d. Individual pieces of load loaded in non-containerized (bulk loaded) baggage or cargo compartments.
This document aims at providing industry recognized means of complying with Airworthiness Authorities general regulations applicable to load securing on board civil transport aircraft (see 14 CFR Parts 25 and 121, in 2.1), and aircraft manufacturers Authority approved Weight and Balance Manuals for each aircraft type as specified therein. It is not the intent of this document to specify when restraint straps should be used, but how they should be used. It shall not, under any circumstance, supersede the requirements of any of these documents, which shall take precedence at all times.
This document therefore provides recommended practical means of compliance with flight safety objectives, intended to be available as a common base for carriers as well as their airport handling agents when establishing their own in-house publications and staff training programs.
This document is not intended to apply to cargo restraint on board military transport aircraft, and does not take into account any specific criteria for military aircraft. Nothing, however, precludes it being used for guidelines in this case, it pertaining to the military operator to identify and implement any additional applicable criteria.
Field of Application
This document applies to the use of cargo restraint straps that conform to TSO-C172 or to the requirements for cargo restraint straps specified in an aircraft's WBM or WBM Supplement. AS5385, or equivalent ISO 16049-1, specifies design and test criteria for cargo restraint straps that conform to TSO-C172.
The use for primary restraint of a tie-down device other than cargo restraint straps (e.g., chain, rope, wire, or cable made from metallic or synthetic materials) is beyond the scope of this document.
NOTE 1: Where tie-down is performed onto aircraft structure as per 1.1.1 (b) or (c) above, additional restrictions may be stated in the aircraft's Authority Approved Weight and Balance Manual, and shall be complied with.
NOTE 2: Figure 1 details D5 and D6 of AS5385 up to revision C are excluded by latest TSO-C172a and must not be used. AS5385 revision D was amended to remove them.
This document applies to primary cargo restraint ensured onto a pallet or the aircraft structure exclusively by straps. It does not apply to the use of straps, e.g., as protection against cargo shifting, in addition to an approved pallet net. In such a case, refer to 6.2, Straps Complement, of ARP5486, Air Cargo Pallets - Utilization Guidelines, or equivalent original ISO 16412.
Operating instructions shall be established by the aircraft operator, under operating control of his reporting Authority. The operating instructions shall ensure compliance with the general airworthiness requirements and the applicable aircraft Weight and Balance Manual, Weight and Balance Manual Supplement, or Cargo Loading Manual, and should incorporate the requirements of the present document, or equivalent industry standard (see 2.2).
If there is conflict between this document and an aircraft's WBM or WBM Supplement, the WBM or WBM Supplement takes precedence. This document can only be used when an aircraft's WBM or WBM Supplement specifically approves the use of straps to restrain cargo to a pallet. If restraining cargo to a pallet is not specifically approved in an aircraft's WBM or WBM Supplement, it is the responsibility of the operator to specify the requirements in its operating instructions (see 1.2.3 and 7.3) in conformity with the requirements of its overseeing Authority. It is beyond the scope of this document to specify an analysis method that substantiates restraining cargo to a pallet which is installed in an aircraft.