CSA - S136-01
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
|Publication Date:||1 January 2001|
Scope and Limits of Applicability
This Specification shall apply to the design of structural members cold-formed to shape from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate or bar not more than one in. (25.4 mm) in thickness and used for load-carrying purposes in buildings. It shall be permitted to be used for structures other than buildings provided appropriate allowances are made for dynamic effects.
This Specification includes Symbols and Definitions, Chapters A through G, and Appendices A through C which shall apply as follows
• Appendix A shall apply only in the United States,
• Appendix B shall apply only in Canada, and
• Appendix C shall apply only in Mexico
This Specification includes design provisions for Allowable Strength Design (ASD), Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Limit States Design (LSD). These design methods shall apply as follows:
• The use of ASD and LRFD shall be limited to the United States and Mexico, and
• The use of LSD shall be limited to, and is mandatory in Canada
The nominal strength [nominal resistance]* and stiffness of cold-formed steel elements, members, assemblies, connections, and details shall be determined in accordance with the provisions in Chapters B through G and Appendices A through C of the Specification. Where the composition or configuration of such components is such that calculation of strength [resistance] and/or stiffness cannot be made in accordance with those provisions, structural performance shall be established from either of the following:
(a) Determine design strength [factored resistance] or stiffness by tests, undertaken and evaluated in accordance with Chapter F.
(b) Determine design strength [factored resistance] or stiffness by rational engineering analysis based on appropriate theory, related testing if data is available, and engineering judgment. Specifically, the design strength [factored resistance] shall be determined from the calculated nominal strength [resistance] by applying the following factors of safety or resistance factors: