Standard Test Method for Determining the Effect of Freeze-Thaw on Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted or Intact Soil Specimens Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
|Publication Date:||1 January 2008|
|ICS Code (Physical properties of soils):||13.080.20|
This test method covers laboratory measurement of the effect of freeze-thaw on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted or intact soil specimens using Test Method D 5084 and a flexible wall permeameter to determine hydraulic conductivity. This test method does not provide steps to perform sampling of, or testing on, in situ soils that have already been subjected to freeze-thaw conditions.
This test method may be used with intact specimens (block or thin-walled) or laboratory compacted specimens and shall be used for soils that have an initial hydraulic conductivity less than or equal to 1E-5 m/s (1E-3 cm/s) (Note 1).
NOTE 1-The maximum initial hydraulic conductivity is given as 1 E-3 cm/s. This should also apply to the final hydraulic conductivity. It is expected that if the initial hydraulic conductivity is 1 E-3 cm/s, then the final hydraulic conductivity will not change (increase) significantly (that is, greater than 1 E-3 cm/s).
Soil specimens tested using this test method can be subjected to three-dimensional freeze-thaw (herein referred to as 3-d) or one-dimensional freeze-thaw (herein referred to as 1-d). (For a discussion of one-dimensional freezing versus three-dimensional freezing, refer to Zimmie2 or Othman.3)
Soil specimens tested using this test method can be tested in a closed system (that is, no access to an external supply of water during freezing) or an open system.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard, unless other units are specifically given. By tradition, it is U.S. practice to report hydraulic conductivity in centimetres per second, although the common SI units for hydraulic conductivity are metres per second. The values are to be calculated and reported in accordance with Practice D 6026.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
2 Zimmie, T. F., and La Plante, C., "The Effect of Freeze/Thaw Cycles on the Permeability of a Fine-Grained Soil," Hazardous and Industrial Wastes, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference, Joseph P. Martin, Shi-Chieh Cheng, and Mary Ann Susavidge, eds., Drexel University, 1990, pp. 580-593.
3 Othman, M. A., Benson, C. H., Chamberlain, E. J., and Zimmie, T. F., "Laboratory Testing to Evaluate Changes in Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clays Caused by Freeze-Thaw: State-of-the-Art," Hydraulic Conductivity and Waste Contaminant Transport in Soils, ASTM STP 1142, David E. Daniel, and Stephen J. Trautwein, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Conshohocken, PA, pp. 227-254.