Guide for Modeling and Calculating Shrinkage and Creep in Hardened Concrete
|Publication Date:||1 May 2008|
This document was developed to address the issues related to the prediction of creep under compression and shrinkageinduced strains in hardened concrete. It may be assumed, however, that predictions apply to concrete under tension and shear. It outlines the problems and limitations in developing prediction equations, presents and compares the prediction capabilities of the ACI 209R-92 (ACI Committee 209 1992), Bažant-Baweja B3 (Bažant and Baweja 1995, 2000), CEB MC90-99 (Muller and Hillsdorf 1990; CEB 1991, 1993, 1999), and GL2000 (Gardner and Lockman 2001) models, and gives an extensive list of references. The models presented are valid for hardened concrete moist cured for at least 1 day and loaded at the end of 1 day of curing or later. The models apply to concretes with mean compressive cylindrical strengths at 28 days within a range of at least 20 to 70 MPa (3000 to 10,000 psi). The prediction models were calibrated with typical composition concretes, but not with concretes containing silica fume, fly ash contents larger than 30%, or natural pozzolans. Models should be calibrated by testing such concretes. This document does not provide information on the evaluation of the effects of creep and shrinkage on the structural performance of concrete structures.