NACE - 8X294
Review of Published Literature on Wet H2S Cracking of Steels Through 1989
|Publication Date:||1 January 2003|
This NACE technical committee report summarizes results of laboratory tests and investigations of field and plant experience presented in various sources of the published literature pertaining to the cracking of steels in wet hydrogen sulfide (H2S) service. Particular attention was devoted to the environmental, fabrication, and metallurgical parameters that play predominant roles in the cracking process. This technical committee report is an interpretational review of the literature. A bibliography is attached at the end of each section, and a reference list is also included at the end of the report, to assist readers who wish to seek further information. A table cross-referencing AISI,(1) ASTM,(2) and UNS(3) designations for materials in this report is given in Appendix A.
A review of this published literature appears to indicate that steels in refinery service can be subjected to conditions of hydrogen charging. These conditions result from the presence of H2S and possibly cyanide species in combination with alkaline or sometimes acidic pH and aqueous environments. The hydrogen charging and cracking of steels in refinery service is very similar in many regards to that observed to occur in steels in acidic pH environments. The similarities are observed in oil and gas pipeline and production service even though significant differences exist in the chemical nature of the service environments. This report is intended for refineries, equipment manufacturers, and engineering contractors.
(1) American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 1140 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20036.
(2) ASTM International (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
(3) Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System (latest revision), a joint publication of ASTM International (ASTM) and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096.