(R) Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing
|Publication Date:||1 November 2009|
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. It describes a body of tests which may be used as needed for abuse testing of electric or hybrid electric vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS) to determine the response of such electrical energy storage and control systems to conditions or events which are beyond their normal operating range.
Abuse test procedures in this document are intended to cover a broad range of vehicle applications as well as a broad range of electrical energy storage devices, including individual RESS cells (batteries or capacitors), modules and packs. This document applies to vehicles with RESS voltages above 60 volts. This document does not apply to RESS that uses mechanical devices store energy (e.g., electro-mechanical flywheels).
This document is designed to provide a common framework of tests
to evaluate the response of various RESS technologies to abusive
conditions. These tests are intended to characterize the RESS
response to undesirable abusive conditions also termed "off-normal"
conditions or environments that may arise as a result of operator
negligence, vehicle accidents, device or system defects, poorly
informed or trained users or mechanics, failure of specific RESS
control and support hardware, or transportation/handl
Tests in this document represent conditions for which the RESS was not designed or intended for use, but can reasonably be expected to be encountered infrequently during field use.
This document is not intended to certify the RESS for shipping. These tests were derived from Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, user input and historical abuse testing. The outcome of testing shall be documented for use by potential users of the tested RESS. It is not the intent of this procedure to establish acceptance criteria since each application has its own unique safety requirements. Moreover, cell safety is only one component of the safety approach that will employ active and passive protection devices such as thermal and electronic controls, state of health monitoring, automatic disconnects as well as ancillary support systems. Users of these technologies shall make their own determination as to what measures to take to ensure a sound application of said technology. The test data from SAE J2464 may be used as input to "Battery Safety and Hazards Risk Mitigation" approach that has been developed (see "Analysis of Battery Safety and Hazards' Risk Mitigation", Cyrus Ashtiani, ECS Trans. 11 (19), 1 (2008)).
The scope of this document is to evaluate the response to abusive conditions at the cell, module and pack levels of RESS integration. While the abusive conditions developed in this test are intended to be representative of potential hazardous conditions in the vehicle environment, not all types of vehicle level hazards are within the scope of this document.
The tests described in this document should be supplemented with additional testing (performed at the test sponsor's or manufacturer's discretion) based on their need for data and their determination of the most susceptible condition of the technology. The primary purpose of the tests is to gather response information to external/internal inputs. Specific tests and/or measurements in this document may not be appropriate for some RESS technologies and designs if it can be demonstrated by the RESS users (or system integrators) that the test is not applicable or the results will be duplicated by other tests.