API STD 65-2
Isolating Potential Flow Zones During Well Construction
|Publication Date:||1 December 2010|
This standard contains practices for isolating potential flow zones, an integral element in maintaining well integrity. The focus of this standard is the prevention of flow through or past barriers that are installed during well construction. Barriers that seal wellbore and formation pressures or flows may include mechanical barriers such as seals, cement, or hydrostatic head, or operational barriers such as flow detection practices. Operational barriers are practices that result in activation of a physical barrier. Though physical barriers may dominate, the total system reliability of a particular design is dependent on the existence of both types of barriers.
The objectives of this guideline are two-fold. The first is to help prevent and/or control flows just prior to, during, and after primary cementing operations to install or "set" casing and liner pipe strings in wells. Some of these flows have caused well control incidents that are very serious problems. They threaten the safety of personnel, the environment, and the drilling rigs themselves. The second objective is to help prevent sustained casing pressure (SCP), also a serious industry problem.
API RP 90, provides guidelines on managing annular casing pressure (ACP) including SCP, thermal casing pressure, and operator-imposed pressure. These guidelines include monitoring, diagnostic testing, establishing the maximum allowable wellhead operating pressure (MAWOP), documenting annular casing pressure, and risk assessment methodologies.