AWS - B2.1:2014
Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification
|Publication Date:||1 January 2014|
|ICS Code (Welding, brazing and soldering in general):||25.160.01|
1.1 Application. Information contained in this guide applies to the visual examination of weldments. This document is intended for those individuals that examine welds before, during, or after the weld is completed. Welders, examiners, engineers, supervisors, etc., that routinely examine welds will benefit from the information contained in this guide. The individual examining the welds should be familiar with the principles and methods of visual examination. The qualification and certification of individuals may be required by the applicable welding standard or as a legal requirement stipulated by municipal, state, or federal statute. Current or past certification in accordance with AWS QC1, Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors, may be acceptable where an alternate certification scheme is not required. Welding should not be initiated before the visual acceptance criteria are clearly defined. Clearly defined visual acceptance criteria will enable the visual examination to be effective and ensure the weldment is completed in accordance with the approved contract documents. 1.2 Scope. This guide essentially provides an introduction to visual examination of welding. These examinations fall into three categories based on the time they are performed, as follows: (1) prior to welding, (2) during welding, and (3) after welding. An extensive treatment is provided on weld surface conditions, including reference to frequently used terminologies associated with preferred and non-preferred conditions. Visual examination may be performed by different people or organizations. Personnel performing welding examination include welders, welding supervisors, the contractor's welding examiner, the purchaser's examiner, or the regulatory examiner. For the purpose of simplicity, these individuals are referred to as visual examiners in the remainder of this standard in that they perform visual examination. Fabrication documents, contract specifications, and regulatory agencies may specify who performs final examinations. Also provided is a review of visual examination equipment routinely used, such as gauges and lighting equipment. Formal documentation of visual examination results is also discussed. Finally, the guide suggests additional reading or references, that may provide more detailed requirements for specific visual examination applications. AWS A3.0M/A3.0 uses nondestructive examination (NDE) as the standard terminology for these examination methods. In other standards, literature, and industry usage, other expressions are commonly used. Among these are: nondestructive inspection (NDI) and nondestructive testing (NDT). It must be emphasized that all of these expressions are commonly used and may be considered equivalent. 1.2.1 Unit of Measurement. This standard makes use of both the International System of Units (SI) and U.S Customary Units. The latter are shown within brackets ([ ]) or in appropriate columns in tables and figures. The measurements may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently. 1.3 Safety and Health. Safety and health issues and concerns are beyond the scope of this standard and therefore are not addressed herein. Safety and health information is available from the following sources: American Welding Society: (1) ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes (2) AWS Safety and Health Fact Sheets (3) Other safety and health information on the AWS website Material or Equipment Manufacturers: (1) Safety Data Sheets supplied by materials manufacturers (2) Operating Manuals supplied by equipment manufacturers Applicable Regulatory Agencies U.S. Department of Labor Regulations: CFR-29, Part 1910.107, Spray Finishing using Flammable and Combustible Liquids Work performed in accordance with this standard may involve the use of materials that have been deemed hazardous, and may involve operations or equipment that may cause injury or death. This standard does not purport to address all safety and health risks that may be encountered. The user of this standard should establish an appropriate safety program to address such risks as well as to meet applicable regulatory requirements. ANSI Z49.1 should be considered when developing the safety program.
This specification provides the requirements for qualification of welding procedure specifications, welders, and welding operators for manual, semiautomatic, mechanized, and automatic welding. The... View More
This specification provides the requirements for qualification of welding procedure specifications, welders, and welding operators for manual, semiautomatic, mechanized, and automatic welding. The welding processes included are electrogas welding, electron beam welding, electroslag welding, flux cored arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, laser beam welding, oxyfuel gas welding, plasma arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, stud arc welding, and submerged arc welding. Base metals, filler metals, qualification variables, welding designs, and testing requirements are also included.View Less