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AWS - C4.4/C4.4M:2007

Recommended practices for heat shaping and straightening with oxyfuel gas heating torches

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Organization: AWS
Publication Date: 1 January 2007
Status: active
Page Count: 56
ICS Code (Welding processes): 25.160.10
ISBN (print): 978-0-87171-079-6
scope:

1. Scope This publication describes some causes of distortion and corrective actions through the use of heat. It also describes some heat shaping techniques and the direction of movement expected in the heated metal. Equations are provided to aid in estimating the amount of movement for a given heating technique. The methods discussed are specifically applicable to ferrous metals, but many of the methods can be applied to nonferrous metals as well. For a more comprehensive description of specific applications, see Annex A, Informative References. Heat has been used to shape and straighten structural elements in bridges, buildings, and marine constructions for over a hundred years. Since the late 1930s, the use of oxyfuel gas torches to do this work has become more prevalent. This publication is a recommended practice for using the torch process for work on bridges and buildings, and to some extent, shipbuilding. Mechanical forces in fabrication and erection, forces occurring in service, accidental impacts from external forces, fire, and explosion, all cause stress in a structural member or a part of a member. If that stress exceeds the elastic limit of the material, distortion will occur, and the member will not conform to its desired shape. Heat shaping and straightening is an economical method to produce the desired movement to bring the member into conformance. The shipbuilding industry throughout the world has taken heat shaping to new heights in shaping technology. Particularly, the use of line heating to shape complex curves in hull structures has become an integral part of a group technology in shipbuilding which also includes product work packages and accuracy control. Basically, straightening and shaping involves controlled thermal expansion and contraction of a structural element. The method, location, and shape of the heat application are covered briefly in this publication. This recommended practice is limited to fundamentals and simple applications (see Annex A for additional information). This standard makes use of both U.S. Customary Units and the International System of Units (SI). The latter are shown within brackets [ ] or in appropriate columns in tables and figures. The measurements may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently. Safety and health issues may not be fully addressed by this standard. Users of this standard should consult ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, applicable federal, state, and local regulations and other relevant documents concerning safety and health issues not addressed herein

abstract:

This second edition of Recommended Practices for Heat Shaping and Straightening covers the shaping of metal products by prudent use of heat to obtain a desired configuration. The text reviews the... View More

Document History

C4.4/C4.4M:2007
January 1, 2007
Recommended practices for heat shaping and straightening with oxyfuel gas heating torches
1. Scope This publication describes some causes of distortion and corrective actions through the use of heat. It also describes some heat shaping techniques and the direction of movement expected in...

References

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