Literature Review on the Effects of Oil and Oil Dispersants on Fishes
|Publication Date:||1 April 1984|
The review provides background information on the effects of oil and petroleum products on fishes and detailed information on fish chemoreception. Part of the review freely utilizes the unpublished literature review presented in Maynard's (1980) thesis. While not being a complete survey of all references in these rapidly growing fields, this review is, nevertheless, considered representative of the most recent information that is available and pertinent to crude oil impacts on salmonid fishes.
The experimental methodology and techniques used in biological studies on the effects of oil on fishes vary widely. Different geographic sources of crude petroleum, the use of static and continuous flow bioassays, and the manner in which the petroleum is handled prior to and during exposure, all contribute to this variability. Methods of exposure include: a) an emulsion of petroleum and water, b) an extract of water soluble fraction (WSF) from such a mixture, and c) an individual component which is found in the WSF. Because the various papers in the literature define the concentration of petroleum or petroleum products in the test water in different ways, this review has attempted to identify whenever possible the method applied to estimate the concentration of oil in the water for a particular study. The concentration values may be calculated on the basis of the total volume of oil to water volume ratio (calc. vol/vol). Analytical chemical measurements of samples of the test water may be made by ultraviolet spectrometry (UV), fluorescence spectrometry (F), infrared spectrometry (IR), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) or radiometric techniques using 14C labeled hydrocarbons. Hence, the concentrations of oil quoted or cited in this review are generally followed by the method used for estimation. The review attempts to give as much of the pertinent information as possible (i.e., ppm, type of solution, sources of petroleum, TLm or LC50 if available), but the more than casual reader must consult each source for a complete evaluation of the experiment. Since most oil concentrations given in the studies reflect amounts of oil added to a test system rather than amounts analyzed by appropriate methods, many of these values may not truly represent the level of exposure. All studies covered in this review are static bioassays unless otherwise indicated. Because more than 25 acronyms are used in this report, for the convenience of the reader Appendix Table 2 presents a glossary of acronyms.