Guide for the Characterization and Evaluation of Sodium-Beta Batteries in Stationary Applications
|Publication Date:||12 October 2018|
This document provides guidance for an objective evaluation of Sodium-Beta energy storage technology by a potential user for any stationary application. This document is to be used in conjunction with IEEE Std 1679™ IEEE Recommended Practice for the Characterization and Evaluation of Emerging Energy Storage Technologies in Secondary Applications.1
For the purposes of this document, Sodium-Beta batteries include those secondary (rechargeable) electrochemistries with sodium as the active species exchanged between the electrodes during charging and discharging, and operating above the melting point of sodium. These batteries use a solid β″-alumina electrolyte, typically written as β″-alumina. Examples of secondary Sodium-Beta batteries are sodium-metal chloride and sodium-sulfur batteries. Non-rechargeable batteries are beyond the scope of this document.
The outline of IEEE Std 1679 is followed in this document, with tutorial information specific to Sodium- Beta batteries provided as appropriate. Examples of tutorial information include technology descriptions, operating parameters, failure modes, safety information, battery architecture, and qualification and application considerations.
This document does not cover sizing, installation, or routine maintenance and testing requirements, except insofar as they may influence the evaluation of a Sodium-Beta battery for its intended application.
Sodium-Beta batteries have been used in various stationary and non-stationary applications for many years. With the growing availability of Sodium-Beta batteries, there is a need to provide appropriate information on safety and operating conditions related to these applications. End-users would benefit from having a guide to assist in evaluation of this technology for stationary applications.
Used with IEEE Std 1679-2010, this guide describes a format for the characterization of Sodium-Beta battery technologies in terms of performance, service life, and safety attributes. This format will provide a framework for developers and manufacturers to describe their products. The resulting information will assist users, integrators, and servicing organizations in evaluating the possible use of these batteries in stationary applications and to provide objective criteria for comparative evaluation.
1Information on references can be found in Clause 2.