Process for Limiting Orbital Debris
|Publication Date:||25 April 2019|
This document serves as a companion to NPR 8715.6 and provides specific technical requirements for limiting orbital debris and methods to comply with the NASA requirements for limiting orbital debris generation. This standard helps ensure that spacecraft and launch vehicles meet acceptable standards for limiting orbital debris generation.
This standard is primarily designed to limit the creation of new orbital debris and, therefore, to limit the risk to other current and future space missions. The methodologies described herein can be used by programs and projects to evaluate and to improve their own mission reliability and success with respect to vulnerabilities associated with the orbital debris and meteoroid environment. The assessments described in this standard are required per NPR 8715.6 and are reviewed for completeness as a part of the flight approval processes.
This standard details requirements for (1) limiting the generation of orbital debris, (2) assessing the risk of collision with existing space debris, (3) assessing the potential of space structures to impact the surface of the Earth, and (4) assessing and limiting the risk associated with the End of Mission (EOM) of a space object. In addition to requirements in Section 4 and methods for assessment, this standard provides the format for the required debris assessment and reports which must be submitted to the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance as required in NPR 8715.6.
Note: NASA-HDBK-8719.14 serves as a reference document to assist orbital debris practitioners and program/project management in understanding orbital debris. Topics in NASA-HDBK-8719.14 include the orbital debris environment, measurements, modeling, shielding, mitigation, and reentry. It is strongly encouraged that the NASA-HDBK be used with the implementation of NPR 8715.6 and NASA-STD-8719.14.
This document is primarily intended for use in assessing orbital debris that is in Earth orbit. For spacecraft and launch vehicles traveling beyond Earth orbit, the beginning of Sections 4.3-4.8 state how the requirements in this standard are applicable.
This standard is applicable to NASA Headquarters (HQ) and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers. This standard applies to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (a Federally-Funded Research and Development Center), other contractors, recipients of grants and cooperative agreements, and parties to other agreements only to the extent specified or referenced in the applicable contracts, grants, or agreements.
This standard is applicable to programs and projects responsible for NASA or NASA-sponsored objects launched into space as set forth in NPR 8715.6. This standard only applies to objects which will exceed 130 km (~70 mi) in altitude and achieve or exceed Earth orbital velocity.
Note 1: Sponsored by NASA are those objects developed or operated by NASA, under contract from NASA, or under agreement with NASA.
Note 2: The National Space Transportation Policy of 2013, gives the Department of Transportation (DOT) the authority to oversee orbital debris mitigation practices for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-licensed launches. Furthermore, for the purpose of this standard, NASA is not a sponsor of launch vehicles furnished by the Department of Defense or foreign partners.
Note 3: NASA missions, spacecraft, and launch vehicles that were under contracts or passed Preliminary Design Review prior to the release of this standard may follow the requirements in NASA-STD-8719.14A.
Any decision to waive or vary from the requirements in this standard requires the concurrence of the Chief, Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA).
In this standard, "shall" denotes a mandatory requirement, "may" denotes a discretionary privilege or permission, "can" denotes statements of possibility or capability, "should" denotes a good practice, and "will" denotes an expected outcome.
NPR 7120.5 and NPR 8715.6 require the use of this document for development of Orbital Debris Assessments (ODA), Orbital Debris Assessment Reports (ODAR), and End of Mission Plans (EOMP).