NASA HANDBOOK FOR MODELS AND SIMULATIONS: AN IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE FOR NASA-STD-7009A
|Publication Date:||8 May 2019|
The purpose of this NASA Technical Handbook is to provide technical information, clarification, examples, processes, and techniques to help institute good modeling and simulation practices in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). As a companion guide to NASASTD- 7009A, Standard for Models and Simulations, this NASA Technical Handbook provides a broader scope of information than is included in a NASA technical standard and promotes good practices in the production, use, and consumption of NASA modeling and simulation products. NASA-STD-7009A specifies what a modeling and simulation activity shall or should do (in the requirements and recommendations), but does not prescribe how they are accomplished, which varies with the specific engineering discipline, or who is responsible for accomplishing them, which depends on the size and type of project. A guidance document, which is not constrained by the requirements of a NASA technical standard, is better suited to address these additional aspects and provide necessary clarification.
This NASA Technical Handbook stems from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation (2003), which called for Agency-wide improvements in the "development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations"1 that subsequently elicited additional guidance from the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer to include "a standard method to assess the credibility of the models and simulations."2 General methods applicable across the broad spectrum of model and simulation (M&S) disciplines were sought to help guide the modeling and simulation processes within NASA and to provide for consistent reporting of M&S activities and analysis results. From this, the life cycle for M&S development and use was developed.
The major contents of this NASA Technical Handbook are the implementation details of the general M&S requirements of NASA-STD-7009A, including explanations, examples, and suggestions for improving M&S credibility throughout the M&S life cycle.
This NASA Technical Handbook is applicable to a broad audience, ranging from the variety of M&S practitioners (developers, users, and analysts, for example) and consumers of M&S-based products and analyses to technical reviewers of M&S activities and analyses.
NASA-STD-7009A and this NASA Technical Handbook are intended for use by M&S practitioners, technical reviewers, decision makers, and others in the organization implementing, reviewing, using, or receiving the results from an M&S-based analysis. Further, as NASA-STD- 7009A is primarily focused toward the results of an M&S-based analysis, which may be used by a variety of people, both internal and external to a given implementing organization, this NASA Technical Handbook may be used by anyone, as in the following examples:
a. In receiving a presentation of an M&S-based analysis, a decision maker may use the Worksheet (section 6) as a guide to a more complete understanding of the analysis.
b. In substantiating an M&S product or analysis, a peer review team may use the Worksheet and NASA Technical Handbook to structure the results of a technical review.
c. In conducting an analysis with an existing M&S, a user/analyst may use the Worksheet and NASA Technical Handbook as a guide to covering basic M&S topics, which may be addressed during a future technical review or presentation for decision making.
d. During the course of an M&S activity, an M&S development team may use the NASA Technical Handbook to ensure meeting the minimal expectations of a product used for critical analysis.
Anyone may use NASA-STD-7009A or this NASA Technical Handbook in the course of their modeling and simulation activities; however, the use is highly recommended for M&S that meet established risk criteria determined by program/project management in collaboration with the NASA delegated Technical Authority as outlined in Appendix D of NASA-STD-7009A. The application of many different types of M&S is possible in the creation of an analytical tool. While the elucidation of those types may be instructive, it is also most likely to be incomplete; therefore, the types of possible M&S are not included here, but are discussed briefly in section 4.1 of this NASA Technical Handbook.
NASA-STD-7009A applies to any point in the program/project life cycle to which an M&Sbased analysis may be applied. However, the expectations on the quality of the M&S products and analysis credibility will vary (most likely, improve) as the program/project matures. For example, the results from an M&S-based analysis in predicting the behavior of a Real World System (RWS) will likely be less precise and less accurate in the conceptual phase of a project than after several years of operations. A listing of the NASA program/project management phases is given in section 4.6 of this NASA Technical Handbook.
NASA-STD-7009A also applies to any size M&S activity if the criticality of the analysis, based on the influence of the M&S to the decision and the decision consequence, warrants its application.
This NASA Technical Handbook is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers and Facilities. It may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC)), other contractors, recipients of grants and cooperative agreements, and parties to other agreements, only to the extent specified or referenced in their applicable contracts, grants, or agreements.
This NASA Technical Handbook, or portions thereof, may be referenced in contract, program, and other Agency documents for guidance.
1A Renewed Commitment to Excellence: An Assessment of the NASA Agency-Wide Applicability of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. B2005-100968, January 30, 2004. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
2 NASA Office of the Chief Engineer (September 1, 2006). Guidance in the Development of NASA-STD-7009. (Memo)
The expected purpose and application of an M&S.