(R) Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice
|Publication Date:||1 July 2019|
xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement.
Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries used for vehicle propulsion power are the assumed battery system of this RP. This chemistry is the prevailing technology associated with high voltage vehicle electrification today and the foreseeable future. The hazards associated with Li-ion battery chemistries are addressed in this RP. Other chemistries and alternative propulsion systems including hydrogen fuel cells are not considered in this version of SAE J2990. Recommendations for hazards associated with hydrogen vehicles can be found in SAE J2990/1.
This SAE RP provides guidelines and education to first and second responders of incidents associated with xEVs and high voltage batteries. The RP is not intended to replace an emergency response guide or to be referenced at the scene of an emergency incident. Automotive OEMs are encouraged to reference this RP for industry design guidance when creating vehicle requirements and Emergency Response Guides (ERGs).
This RP is not intended to address battery specific hazards, but rather vehicles which contain aforementioned batteries. The RP does, however, consider batteries that may become separated from a vehicle as a result of a crash event or at storage and repair facilities where responders are involved. SAE J2990/2 provides an overview of a typical xEV and the associated on-board safety systems typically employed by OEMs to protect these high voltage systems.