Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing — Use of time-offlight diffraction technique (TOFD)
|Publication Date:||1 May 2020|
|ICS Code (Welded joints and welds):||25.160.40|
This document specifies the application of the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique to the semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of minimum thickness 6 mm.
It applies to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and the parent material are low-alloyed carbon steel. Where specified and appropriate, TOFD can also be used on other types of materials that exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter).
Where material-dependent ultrasonic parameters are specified in this document, they are based on steels having a sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for transverse waves. It is necessary to take this fact into account when testing materials with a different velocity.
This document makes reference to ISO 16828 and provides guidance on the specific capabilities and limitations of TOFD for the detection, location, sizing and characterization of discontinuities in fusionwelded joints. TOFD can be used as a stand-alone method or in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods or techniques, for manufacturing inspection, and for in-service inspection.
This document specifies four testing levels (A, B, C, D) in accordance with ISO 17635 and corresponding to an increasing level of testing reliability. Guidance on the selection of testing levels is provided.
This document permits assessment of TOFD indications for acceptance purposes. This assessment is based on the evaluation of transmitted, reflected and diffracted ultrasonic signals within a generated TOFD image.
This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.