Standard Test Methods for Determining the Effect of Freeze-Thaw on Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted or Intact Soil Specimens Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
|Publication Date:||1 November 2019|
|ICS Code (Physical properties of soils):||13.080.20|
These test methods cover laboratory measurement of the effect of freeze-thaw on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted or intact soil specimens using Test Method D5084 and a flexible wall permeameter to determine hydraulic conductivity. These test methods do not provide steps to perform sampling of, or testing of, in situ soils that have already been subjected to freeze-thaw conditions. Test Method A uses a specimen for each hydraulic conductivity determination that is subjected to freeze/thaw while Test Method B uses one specimen for the entire test method (that is, the same specimen is used for each hydraulic conductivity).
These test methods may be used with intact specimens (block or thin-walled) or laboratory compacted specimens and shall be used for soils that have an initial hydraulic conductivity less than or equal to 1E-5 m/s [3.94 E-4 in./s] (1E-3 cm/s) (Note 1).
NOTE 1-The maximum initial hydraulic conductivity is given as 1 E-5 m/s [3.94 E-4 in./s]. This should also apply to the final hydraulic conductivity. It is expected that if the initial hydraulic conductivity is 1 E-5 m/s (3.94 E-4 in./s), then the final hydraulic conductivity will not change (increase) significantly (that is, greater than 1 E-5 m/s) (3.94 E-4 in./s).
Soil specimens tested using this test method can be subjected to three-dimensional freeze-thaw (herein referred to as 3-d) or one-dimensional freeze-thaw (herein referred to as 1-d). (For a discussion of one-dimensional freezing versus three-dimensional freezing, refer to Zimmie and LaPlante or Othman, et al.2,3)
Soil specimens tested using this test method can be tested in a closed system (that is, no access to an external supply of water during freezing) or an open system.
All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
The procedures used to specify how data are collected/ recorded and calculated in the standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of the test methods ro consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering data.
Units-The values stated in SI units or inch-pound units (presented in brackets) are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2 Zimmie, T. F., and La Plante, C., "The Effect of Freeze/Thaw Cycles on the Permeability of a Fine-Grained Soil," Hazardous and Industrial Wastes, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference, Joseph P. Martin, Shi-Chieh Cheng, and Mary Ann Susavidge, eds., Drexel University, 1990, pp. 580-593.
3 Othman, M. A., Benson, C. H., Chamberlain, E. J., and Zimmie, T. F., "Laboratory Testing to Evaluate Changes in Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clays Caused by Freeze-Thaw: State-of-the-Art," Hydraulic Conductivity and Waste Contaminant Transport in Soils, ASTM STP 1142, David E. Daniel, and Stephen J. Trautwein, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Conshohocken, PA, pp. 227-254.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard