IEEE WHITE PAPER IMRM
INTEROPERABILITY MATURITY ROADMAP IEEE Std 2030.5
|Publication Date:||1 January 2019|
IEEE Std 2030.5 is designed to support many different application domains. Arguably the greatest area of application interest emerging in technology deployments using IEEE Std 2030.5 is in the distributed energy resource area, specifically in distributed solar and wind systems using smart inverters. Government policies are being enacted in states such as California and Hawaii that require coordination of these responsive resource systems in order to address system operational concerns in regions with high penetrations of these resources.
Attention to these issues encourages stakeholders to come together to seek alignment on standards, guides, and policies that address interoperability and the ease of integrating these systems. Close behind this immediate driver is community interest to address the coordinated operation of storage systems, electric vehicle charging, and demand response. While this attention should not diminish the application of IEEE Std 2030.5 to other integration scenarios, a set of priority responsive resource assets brings focus and substance to the scope of the roadmap effort. In addition, interactions between transmission level operations and distribution system operations has great influence on how customer-oriented assets are engaged in operation. This effort recognizes the importance that aggregated distribution level resources has with the transmission level interactions.
While IEEE Std 2030.5 may be applied to other utility services such as water and gas, the scope of this roadmap focuses on electric system interactions. The following sections summarize the priority assets of attention, the actors involved in the integration and operation scenarios related to these assets, and a conceptualization of the points of integration and interfaces for communication between the actors that help bound the scope of this roadmap.
Assets are the communicating energy resources that are being integrated for coordination with electric system operations.
The energy generated by these assets are integrated into the electric system using power electronic inverters. Automated control and communications capabilities installed with the inverters provide mechanisms for coordinated operations with the power system.
These energy storage devices (whether electrochemical, electromechanical, or thermal) are presumed to reside in a stationary location. They can run in both charge and discharge mode and may be able to regulate the rate of charging and discharging. They use power electronic inverter technology with automated control and communications capabilities to provide a mechanism for coordinated operations with the power system.
• EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment):
These charging systems for electric vehicles (EVs) also use power electronics to regulate the charging current of vehicle batteries. They can also regulate discharge back into the power system. They may use power electronic inverter technology with automated control and communications capabilities to provide mechanisms for coordinated operations with the power system as an alternative path of communication with the EV. The mobile nature of the resource and transportation objectives make these assets different from stationary batteries.
• Responsive load:
These assets use electricity to perform work or services, and are automated to regulate their operation, usually within some operational constraints These resources may be associated with industrial, commercial, and residential facilities (as opposed to large manufacturing and processing plants). Homes tend to have unitary devices; however, in large, commercial buildings and small industrial plants, the equipment's operation may be part of an interrelated set of processes that use a facility management system. Such facilities may also include other assets, including PV/Wind, batteries, and EVs. The facility management system may coordinate the operation of the devices within the premises to shape the overall facility load and make it responsive for interaction with the electric system. Alternatively, each unitary device within a facility may have its own interface and metering to the electric system for coordinating operations.
• Meter (measurement metrology):
This asset class refers to the measurement parts of an electric meter and its communications interface and is not an energy resource per se. The capabilities within a meter enclosure may preform many different functions beyond the basics of power and energy metrology, including device and facility management functions. Where these additional functions are designed and located are a matter of packaging. To clarify the concepts in the scope of concerns, the meter asset in this document refers strictly to the metrology of the meter and its communications interface.
The actors are the responsible parties or their agents that are interacting to coordinate the operation of responsive resources with electric system operations.
Regulators are responsible for establishing and monitoring the policies or rules of engagement for responsive resource interactions with the electric system within their jurisdictional authority. They do not participate directly in the interactions, but their policies and decisions guide the nature and performance requirements of the interactions. This may include protocol selection.
• Transmission System Operator (TSO):
This class of actors include independent system operators and regional transmission authorities (ISO/RTOs), wholesale market operators, and the parts of utilities that have similar responsibilities for coordinating operations of the bulk electric power system and its associated markets. The way this level of the system is organized and managed as well as the terms used is varied. To focus the scope of this roadmap, this class of actors do not participate directly in the interactions with responsive resources but depend upon distribution system operators and service providers to interact with responsive resource assets and present an aggregated set of responsive resources at the transmission system level. The polices and interaction rules of engagement they put in place with the distribution system operator and service provider guide the nature and performance requirements of the interactions with the responsive resource assets.
• Distribution System Operator (DSO):
This actor is responsible for the safe, effective, reliable, and efficient operation of the distribution system infrastructure. It represents the distribution system operations parts of utilities. It may interact with a Service Provider who aggregates the responsive behavior of responsive resources to ensure safe and reliable operations. It may also interact directly with a Responsive Resource Facility Operator who supervises a set of responsive resource assets within the facility or it may interact directly with the local intelligence.
• Service Provider (Aggregator):
The Service Provider is an aggregator of responsive resource assets for coordination with a DSO and potentially with a TSO. For the sake of this roadmap, the Service Provider may use IEEE Std 2030.5 and associated material to interact with the DSO. It also interacts directly with a Responsive Resource Facility Operator who supervises a set of responsive resource assets within the facility or it may interact directly with the local intelligence.
• Responsive Resource Facility Operator:
This actor represents the customer who is using electricity in a facility or the customer's agent who is responsible for operating the facility. The facility may include something as large as the premises of a building or compound, in which case it will likely have a management function that supervises the operation of several responsive resource assets each with its own local device manager. It may also be as small as an intelligent responsive resource asset itself with its local device manager. The Facility Operator interacts with the Service Provider in its role to aggregate the behavior of responsive resources and it may interact with the DSO for safe and reliable operation of the distribution system. The Facility Operator may be the customer or a third-party operator (local or remote) who is acting on the customer's behalf.
• Responsive Resource Asset Manager:
Each responsive asset has intelligence to manage its operation. The Responsive Resource Asset Manager has direct control of the asset and interacts with the facility's management function to coordinate its operation within the facility. It might also interact directly with other Responsive Resource Asset Managers in the facility or with the DSO and/or the Service Provider. Examples of a Responsive Resource Asset Manager include a smart thermostat for heating and cooling systems, a building management system, a smart inverter controller, or a microgrid controller.
Figure 1 depicts a simplified view of the actors, assets, and interfaces of interest that link the actors. This landscape helps focus the scope of discussion for the roadmap. It shows the regulator and the TSO as important players that influence the specification of the interfaces shown in red, but the direct interacting actors are the DSO, Service Provider, Responsive Resource Facility Operator, and the Responsive Resource Asset Managers. The role of the Management Function in the figure is to represent three types of IEEE Std 2030.5 use cases for integration.
1. The first represents the IEEE 2030.5 interface of an individual responsive resource asset communicating directly with the DSO and/or Service Provider plus the meter. In this case, the Management Function box degenerates into a direct connection to the local asset manager.
2. The second case represents the Management Function as a coordinator of one or more responsive resource assets within a facility. In this case, the DSO and Service provider plus the meter use IEEE Std 2030.5 to interact with something like a building or home management system, which internally interacts with the responsive resource assets and hides the details of the internal interactions from the external parties.
3. The third case represents the use of IEEE Std 2030.5 for interacting between the Management Function with one or more responsive resource assets inside the facility.
Each of these actors might have an interface to the Meter to access the measurement of electricity use. This is also included in the scope of IEEE Std 2030.5 and the roadmap.
The general period considered in developing the roadmap is from the present to 5 years out. This allows for the description of near-term actions within the roadmap while also considering some steps that may take somewhat longer to implement but help move the ecosystem toward the visionary goals in a reasonable time period.
Marketplace Business Drivers
A major business objective that has driven the adoption of IEEE Std 2030.5 and helped spawn a community of stakeholders to put in place supporting documents and practices is the integration of PV systems with smart inverters in California and Hawaii. Besides these regional marketplaces, many states of the United States and Ontario, Canada are discussing responsive resource integration and the use of IEEE Std 2030.5. In addition, Korea is participating in IEEE 2030.5 standards efforts and deployments.
These areas represent the main contributors to the IEEE 2030.5 interoperability roadmap effort; however, interest is also being shown in other parts of the world. For example, Africa is looking at using IEEE Std 2030.5, but from a different use case direction. Their implementations consider microgrid or small community electric systems where they would like to have common interface specifications so that these small electric systems can be integrated into a larger, national system as the infrastructure matures.
While the roadmap needs to acknowledge the initial marketplaces influencing this work, it also should consider how other, emerging marketplaces can be informed of roadmap efforts that advance interoperability using IEEE Std 2030.5 and associated material so that the ecosystem grows and becomes even more valuable. The roadmap needs to reflect a vision that supports a common technical standard with rules and best practices for specializing support of different applications (i.e., responsive resource technologies being integrated and their coordination frameworks).