American National Standard of Procedures for Compliance Testing of Unlicensed Wireless Devices
|Publication Date:||10 September 2020|
This standard specifies U.S. consensus standard methods and instrumentation and test facilities requirements for measurement of radio frequency (RF) signals and noise emitted from unlicensed wireless devices (also called unlicensed transmitters, intentional radiators, and license-exempt transmitters) operating in the frequency range 9 kHz to 231 GHz. It does not include generic or product specific emission limits. It also does not cover measurement of radio emissions from unintentional radiators, as mentioned in 1.2. Where possible, the specifications herein are harmonized with other national and international standards used for similar purposes.
As described in 1.2 of this standard, measurement methods are provided for radiated and conducted emissions that can be generated by a variety of devices. For terms and phrases contained in the text that do not represent obvious or common usage, definitions are provided. In most cases, measurement instrumentation and calibration requirements, which should be used with this standard, are generally characterized in deference to standards dedicated to these subjects, which should be used in conjunction with this standard. Requirements for operation of test samples during measurements are presented for devices in general, as well as for specific types of devices that are frequently measured. Specific requirements for emission test data recording and reporting are presented with reference to general requirements contained in documents dedicated to standard laboratory practices, which should be used in conjunction with this standard. The main text is augmented by a series of annexes that provide details for certain measurement methods and facilities.
Purpose and applications
Various unlicensed wireless devices (also known as unlicensed transmitters, intentional radiators, and license-exempt transmitters) are subject to certain regulatory requirements. The primary way to show compliance in meeting regulatory requirements is by testing such devices in a repeatable and reproducible manner. This standard presents the methods of measurement to show compliance with the technical specifications for the majority of current wireless devices in wide use. It is not expected that all unlicensed wireless devices on the market will in fact be covered by this standard.
This standard does not consider test methods for unlicensed wireless devices already covered in other published standards, such as, but not limited to:
a) Unlicensed Personal Communications Services devices covered under ANSI C63.17-2013
b) Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) functionality required for U-NII devices in the United States
c) Industrial, Scientific and Medical equipment
d) RF exposure conformity assessment methods subject to standards such as IEEE Std 1528-2003
This document provides standard test methods for determining compliance with regulatory requirements for many types of unlicensed wireless devices. These unlicensed wireless devices include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Remote control and security unlicensed wireless devices
- Frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum devices
- Digital transmission system devices
- Antipilferage devices
- Cordless telephones
- Radio frequency identification (RFID) tag readers
- Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure devices
- Intrusion detectors
- Unlicensed wireless devices operating below 30 MHz
- Wireless (garage) door openers
- Ultra-wideband (UWB) devices
- Automatic vehicle identification systems
- Inductive devices
Clause 2 and Clause 3 contain the normative references and definitions used in this standard, respectively. Clause 4 provides the specifications for the necessary test instrumentation needed for performing compliance testing. Clause 5 provides the general requirements for all standard test methods. Clause 6 provides standard test methods required for most unlicensed wireless devices. Clause 7, Clause 8 (FM band devices), Clause 9 (millimeter-wave devices), Clause 10 (ultra-wideband devices), Clause 11 (DTS devices), Clause 12 (U-NII devices), Clause 13 (devices using antenna arrays), Clause 14 (devices with multiple outputs) identify additional tests or requirements for specific types of unlicensed wireless devices, and Clause 15 (Whitespace devices). Clause 17 specifies requirements for reporting test results.
All annexes in this edition are informative however if applied during testing to this standard the information becomes normative for that particular instance where the annex is applied. Annex A is a listing of the tests required to determine compliance of a specific unlicensed wireless device and gives examples of regulatory band-edge requirements for various unlicensed wireless devices. Because Annex A describes regulatory requirements for testing of unlicensed wireless devices, it serves as a key to use of this standard. Annex B is an example of the information to be included in a test report. Annex C is a discussion on instrumentation pulse desensitization considerations. Annex D provides information about detector types and functions used in EMC testing. Annex E provides information about measurements above 1 GHz from an instrumentation perspective. Annex F is a discussion on broadband measurements. Annex G provides guidelines for effective radiated power (ERP) and equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) measurements. Annex H discusses the rationale for making radiated emission measurements using two different methods. Annex I discusses site considerations for measuring inductive-loop devices below 1 MHz. Annex J provides details of an alternative procedure for determining compliance of unlicensed FM transmitters. Annex K provides details and information on Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) testing. Annex L is a discussion on FMCW desensitization and sweep time considerations. Finally, Annex M and Annex N provide an informative glossary and a bibliography, respectively.
Use of the annexes and clauses applicable to an unlicensed wireless EUT allows users of this standard to determine compliance of a device with regulatory requirements. However, any test procedure identified for use by the national regulatory authority that differs from the provisions of this standard shall take precedence.
Not all clauses in this standard are applicable to all devices that can be measured with these methods. The nature of this standard is to specify general methods that can be applied to all devices within its scope and to supplement these methods with particular requirements for some types of devices. Device-specific requirements take precedence over general requirements. See Annex A for guidance in applying this standard to specific types of devices.
This document covers measurement methodologies but is not intended to describe regulatory limits.
As new measurement methods mature, this standard will be amended or a follow-up standard will be developed to present the new methods. It is also expected that the ASC C63® Committee that developed this standard will provide a forum for test laboratories, manufacturers, and government agencies to determine the need for additions and amendments of this standard to accommodate new wireless devices in the future.