IEC - 61452
Nuclear instrumentation – Measurement of activity or emission rate of gammaray emitting radionuclides – Calibration and use of germanium-based spectrometers
|Publication Date:||1 June 2021|
|ICS Code (Radiation measurements):||17.240|
This document establishes methods for the calibration and use of high purity germanium spectrometers for the measurement of photon energies and emission rates over the energy range from 45 keV to approximately 3 000 keV and the calculation of radionuclide activities from these measurements. Minimum requirements for automated peak finding are stated. This document establishes methods for measuring the full-energy peak efficiency with calibrated sources.
Performance tests are described that ascertain if the spectrometer is functioning within acceptable limits. These tests evaluate the limitations of the algorithms used for locating and fitting single and multiplet peaks. Methods for the measurement of and the correction for pulse pile-up are suggested. A test to ascertain the approximate magnitude of true coincidence summing is described. Techniques are recommended for the inspection of spectral analysis results for large errors resulting from true coincidence summing of cascade gamma-rays in the detector. Suggestions are provided for the establishment of data libraries for radionuclide identification, decay corrections, the conversion of gamma-ray emission rates to decay rates and Monte Carlo simulations.
The measurement of X-ray emission rates is not included because different functional fits are required for X-ray peaks, which have intrinsically different peak shapes than gamma-ray peaks. Further, X-ray peaks are complex multiplets (e.g., the K X-rays of Tl include 10 individual components that form four partially resolved peaks). This document does not address the measurement of emission rates of annihilation radiation peaks or single- and double-escape peaks resulting from partial energy deposition in the detector from pair production. Escape peaks may require different fitting functions than comparable full-energy peaks. Further, annihilation radiation and single-escape peaks have a different and larger width than a gamma-ray peak of similar energy. Discussion of acceptable methods for measuring the lower limits of detection as they relate to specific radionuclides is beyond the scope of this document.
The object of this document is to provide a basis for the routine calibration and use of germanium (HPGe) semiconductor detectors for the measurement of gamma-ray emission rates and thereby the activities of the radionuclides in a sample. It is intended for use by persons who have an understanding of the principles of HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry and are responsible for the development of correct procedures for the calibration and use of such detectors. This document is primarily intended for routine analytical measurements. Related documents are IEC 60973 and ISO 20042.