ICAO - 10088
Manual on Civil-Military Cooperation in Air Traffic Management
|Publication Date:||1 January 2021|
The Preamble to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300, Chicago Convention) highlights that States, parties thereto, "agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically".
Article 3 of the Chicago Convention provides that it shall be applicable only to civil aircraft and shall not be applicable to state aircraft, which are used in military, customs and police services as per Article 3 b). However, Article 3 d) requires that "contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their state aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft".
Therefore, there is a need for States to establish a framework for ensuring adequate collaboration, cooperation and coordination between civil and military aviation stakeholders, aiming to support States to fulfil their national requirements and meet their obligations as parties to the Chicago Convention. The focus of this manual is to provide guidance to States wishing to implement or improve civil-military cooperation for air traffic management, for the safe and optimal use of the airspace by both parties. It is important to note, however, that most of this material would be equally relevant to the wider spectrum of state aircraft operations, as well as other airspace usage.
While the terms civil-military collaboration, cooperation and coordination may seem inter-changeable, these terms are used to differentiate between the various levels of effort needed to support the State's aviation policies and objectives. Collaboration entails the long-term (5 to 20 years) envisioning, planning and development of future global aviation systems and operations. Cooperation is the more practicable effort towards developing mutually agreeable optimized solutions to strategic and pre-tactical issues and challenges in the nearer time horizon. Coordination refers to the real-time exchanges of information and joint tactical decisions at the operational level. The fundamental goal of collaboration, cooperation and coordination is to improve the safety and efficiency of all aviation operations.
Civil and military operations differ in nature and in purpose. While civil aviation supports global interconnection and contributes to the global economy, military operations are conducted for reasons of national security or defence. However, both types of operations take place in a single continuum of airspace and, therefore, civil aviation and military stakeholders need to cooperate to ensure their mutual safety. Successful cooperation is based on mutual trust, respect, transparency and understanding. Additionally, the modernization of air traffic management (ATM) towards greater information flows and operational flexibility creates a need to enhance civil-military cooperation and coordination.
Notwithstanding civilian requirements, militaries also need to use airspace effectively and efficiently while conducting their operations. States are encouraged to foster better civil-military cooperation to meet the increasing need for access to airspace by both types of actors, alongside the growing need for operational flexibility.
Guided by the Global Air Navigation Plan (Doc 9750), the evolution of the ATM system requires global, regional and national cooperation between civil and military aviation authorities. This cooperation will ensure the integration of State aviation needs and facilitate the planning required to support the effective implementation of the ATM evolution. Although current ATM research and development programme outcomes are not directly applicable to the military, their impact on military authorities and other agencies operating state aircraft will be operationally and financially relevant. In view of these increasing interoperability requirements, cooperation and coordination at all levels will enable the appropriate planning and evolution of military fleet, equipage and control systems.
Optimizing airspace for both civil and military operations results in nation-wide benefits. The flexible use of airspace (FUA) is fundamental in supporting the optimization process. It is recommended that civil and military experts jointly develop advice and guidance on the best practices for civil-military cooperation and coordination. The principle "as civil as possible, as military as necessary" enhances interoperability, performance and military mission effectiveness, while providing performance benefits for the whole aviation community.
The production of this manual stems from the recognition that, considering the current and foreseeable needs of aviation, a majority of States are facing challenges related to the management of the limited airspace available to fulfil the needs of both civil and military activities.
This document provides information and guidance to relevant aviation authorities on the establishment of a framework for civil-military cooperation and coordination to enhance and optimize the management and use of the airspace, and to achieve and strengthen the trust between civil and military. This manual will also serve as reference for authorities and units responsible for establishing and implementing the processes and procedures that will facilitate civil-military collaboration, cooperation and coordination. This manual supersedes Civil-Military Cooperation in Air Traffic Management (Cir. 330).