Industrial-Process Control Valves - Part 2-1: Flow capacity - Sizing equations for fluid flow under installed conditions
|Publication Date:||27 August 2012|
This standard includes equations for predicting the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through control valves.
The equations for incompressible flow are based on standard hydrodynamic equations for Newtonian incompressible fluids. They are not intended for use when non-Newtonian fluids, fluid mixtures, slurries or liquid-solid conveyance systems are encountered. The equations for incompressible flow may be used with caution for non-vaporizing multi-component liquid mixtures. Refer to Clause 6 for additional information.
At very low ratios of pressure differential to absolute inlet pressure ( ΔP/P1), compressible fluids behave similarly to incompressible fluids. Under such conditions, the sizing equations for compressible flow can be traced to the standard hydrodynamic equations for Newtonian incompressible fluids. However, increasing values of ΔP/P1 result in compressibility effects which require that the basic equations be modified by appropriate correction factors. The equations for compressible fluids are for use with ideal gas or vapor and are not intended for use with multiphase streams such as gas-liquid, vapor-liquid or gas-solid mixtures. Reasonable accuracy can only be maintained when the specific heat ratio, gamma , is restricted to the range 1.08 < gamma < 1.65. Refer to Clause 7.2 for more information.
For compressible fluid applications, this standard is valid for valves with xT > 0.84 (see Table D.2). For valves with xT > 0.84 (e.g. some multistage valves), greater inaccuracy of flow prediction can be expected.