IEEE - ANSI C63.10
American National Standard of Procedures for Compliance Testing of Unlicensed Wireless Devices
|Publication Date:||27 June 2013|
This standard specifies U.S. consensus standard methods and instrumentation and test facilities requirements for measurement of radio frequency (RF) signals and noise emitted from unlicensed wireless devices (also called unlicensed transmitters, intentional radiators, and license-exempt transmitters) operating in the frequency range 9 kHz to 231 GHz. It does not include generic or product-specific emission limits. It also does not cover measurement of radio emissions from unintentional radiators, as mentioned in 1.2. Where possible, the specifications herein are harmonized with other national and international standards used for similar purposes.
Uses of the word shall in this standard indicate a mandatory requirement that must be met to satisfy this standard. The word should is used to indicate that a requirement is recommended but not mandatory. Tolerances on dimensions and distances are based on good engineering practice where not specified. The word may is used to indicate a recommendation that is at the discretion of the user. In addition, notes in this document are informative and are not part of the requirements. In this standard, the text takes precedence over the figures because the text is complete and the figures are illustrative of a typical application of the text. Notes are used in the text for emphasis or to offer informative suggestions about the technical content of the standard, and provide additional information to assist the reader with a particular passage, but they do not include mandatory requirements. Footnotes in text are included only for information, clarification, and/or aid applicable to the use of the standard, but mandatory requirements are not included in text footnotes.
Measurement methods are provided for radiated and conducted emissions that can be generated by a variety of devices, as described in 1.2. Definitions are provided for terms and phrases contained in the text, in which the words do not represent obvious or common usage. In most cases, measurement instrumentation and calibration requirements are only generally characterized in deference to standards dedicated to these subjects, which should be used in conjunction with this standard. Requirements for operation of test samples during measurements are presented for devices in general, as well as for specific types of devices that are frequently measured. Specific requirements for emission test data recording and reporting are presented with reference to general requirements contained in documents dedicated to standard laboratory practices, which should be used in conjunction with this standard. The main text is augmented by a series of annexes that provide details for certain measurement methods and facilities.
Purpose and applications
Various unlicensed wireless devices (also known as unlicensed transmitters, intentional radiators, and license-exempt transmitters) are subject to certain regulatory requirements. The primary way to show compliance in meeting regulatory requirements is by testing such devices in a repeatable and reproducible manner. This standard presents the methods of measurement to show compliance with the technical specifications for the majority of current wireless devices in wide use. It represents a consolidation and elucidation of procedures that were heretofore dispersed throughout many documents. It is not expected that all unlicensed wireless devices on the market will in fact be covered by this standard.
This standard does not consider test methods for unlicensed wireless devices already covered in other published standards, such as Unlicensed Personal Communication Services devices, which are covered in ANSI C63.17-2006 [B3].1 Procedures for evaluating dynamic frequency selection (DFS) functionality (i.e., required for U-NII devices in the United States) and for television-band unlicensed wireless devices2 are not addressed in this standard. This standard also does not cover measurement of emissions from radio receivers, the receiver portion of a transceiver, and other types of unintentional radiators, which are covered by other standards (e.g., ANSI C63.4).3 This standard does not cover other types of unintentional radiators (e.g., industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) equipment). In addition, many types of unlicensed wireless devices are also subject to regulatory requirements concerning human exposure to RF energy; RF exposure conformity assessment methods are not considered in this standard but are the subject of other standards (e.g., IEEE Std 1528TM-2003 [B37]).
This document provides standard test methods for determining compliance with regulatory requirements for many types of unlicensed wireless devices. These unlicensed wireless devices include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Remote control and security unlicensed wireless devices
- Frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum devices
- Digital transmission system devices
- Antipilferage devices
- Cordless telephones
- Radio frequency identification (RFID) tag readers
- Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure devices
- Intrusion detectors
- Unlicensed wireless devices operating below 30 MHz
- Wireless (garage) door openers
- Ultra-wideband (UWB) devices
- Automatic vehicle identification systems
- Inductive devices
Clause 2 and Clause 3 contain the normative references and definitions used in this standard, respectively. Clause 4 provides the specifications for the necessary test instrumentation needed for performing compliance testing. Clause 5 provides the general requirements for all standard test methods. Clause 6 provides standard test methods required for most unlicensed wireless devices. Clause 7, Clause 8 (FM band devices), Clause 9 (millimeter-wave devices), Clause 10 (ultra-wideband devices), Clause 11 (DTS devices), Clause 12 (U-NII devices), Clause 13 (devices using antenna arrays), and Clause 14 (devices with multiple outputs) identify additional tests or requirements for specific types of unlicensed wireless devices. Clause 15 specifies requirements for reporting test results.
Annex A is an informative listing of the tests required to determine compliance of a specific unlicensed wireless device and gives examples of regulatory band-edge requirements for various unlicensed wireless devices. Because Annex A describes regulatory requirements for testing of unlicensed wireless devices, it serves as a key to use of this standard. Annex B is an informative example of the information to be included in a test report. Annex C is an informative discussion on instrumentation pulse desensitization considerations. Annex D provides information about detector types and functions used in EMC testing. Annex E provides information about measurements above 1 GHz from an instrumentation perspective. Annex F is an informative discussion on broadband measurements. Annex G provides guidelines for effective radiated power (ERP) and equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) measurements. Annex H discusses the rationale for making radiated emission measurements using two different methods. Annex I discusses site considerations for measuring inductive-loop devices below 1 MHz. Annex J provides details of an alternative procedure for determining compliance of unlicensed FM transmitters. Finally, Annex K and Annex L provide an informative glossary and a bibliography, respectively.
Use of the annexes and clauses applicable to an unlicensed wireless device under test allows users of this standard to determine compliance of a device with regulatory requirements. However, any test procedure identified for use by the national regulatory authority that differs from the provisions of this standard shall take precedence.
Numbered cross-references used throughout this standard refer to either a specific clause or subclause of this standard; for example, 6 refers to Clause 6, 6.2 refers to subclause 6.2, and A.2 refers to subclause A.2 of Annex A.
Not all clauses in this standard are applicable to all devices that can be measured with these methods. The nature of this standard is to specify general methods that can be applied to all devices within its scope and to supplement these methods with particular requirements for some types of devices. Device-specific requirements take precedence over general requirements. See Annex A for guidance in applying this standard to specific types of devices.
This document covers measurement methodologies but is not intended to describe regulatory limits.
As new measurement methods mature, this standard will be amended or a follow-up standard will be developed to present the new methods. It is also expected that the ASC C63® Committee that developed this standard will provide a forum for test laboratories, manufacturers, and government agencies to determine the need for additions and amendments of this standard to accommodate new wireless devices in the future.
1 The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex L.
2 Television-band unlicensed wireless devices are covered in 47 CFR part 15 subpart H.
3 Information on references can be found in Clause 2.