Standard Test Method for Determining the Effect of Freeze-Thaw on Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted or Intact Soil Specimens Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
|Publication Date:||15 August 2013|
|ICS Code (Physical properties of soils):||13.080.20|
This test method covers laboratory measurement of the effect of freeze-thaw on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted or intact soil specimens using Test Method D5084 and a flexible wall permeameter to determine hydraulic conductivity. This test method does not provide steps to perform sampling of, or testing of, in situ soils that have already been subjected to freeze-thaw conditions.
This test method may be used with intact specimens (block or thin-walled) or laboratory compacted specimens and shall be used for soils that have an initial hydraulic conductivity less than or equal to 1E-5 m/s [3.94 E-4 in./s] (1E-3 cm/s) (Note 1).
NOTE 1-The maximum initial hydraulic conductivity is given as 1 E-5 m/s [3.94 E-4 in./s]. This should also apply to the final hydraulic conductivity. It is expected that if the initial hydraulic conductivity is 1 E-5 m/s (3.94 E-4 in./s), then the final hydraulic conductivity will not change (increase) significantly (that is, greater than 1 E-5 m/s) (3.94 E-4 in./s).
Soil specimens tested using this test method can be subjected to three-dimensional freeze-thaw (herein referred to as 3-d) or one-dimensional freeze-thaw (herein referred to as 1-d). (For a discussion of one-dimensional freezing versus three-dimensional freezing, refer to Zimmie2 or Othman.3)
Soil specimens tested using this test method can be tested in a closed system (that is, no access to an external supply of water during freezing) or an open system.
All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
The values stated in SI units or inch-pound units (presented in brackets) are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as conconformance with this test method.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2 Zimmie, T. F., and La Plante, C., "The Effect of Freeze/Thaw Cycles on the Permeability of a Fine-Grained Soil," Hazardous and Industrial Wastes, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference, Joseph P. Martin, Shi-Chieh Cheng, and Mary Ann Susavidge, eds., Drexel University, 1990, pp. 580-593.
3 Othman, M. A., Benson, C. H., Chamberlain, E. J., and Zimmie, T. F., "Laboratory Testing to Evaluate Changes in Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clays Caused by Freeze-Thaw: State-of-the-Art," Hydraulic Conductivity and Waste Contaminant Transport in Soils, ASTM STP 1142, David E. Daniel, and Stephen J. Trautwein, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Conshohocken, PA, pp. 227-254.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard