Standard Reference Radiographs for HEAVY-WALLED (2 TO 4 1/2-in. (51 TO 114-mm)) STEEL CASTINGS
|Publication Date:||26 December 1975|
These reference radiographs2 are reproductions of original radiographs and are supplied as a means for establishing the categories and severity levels of discontinuities in steel castings that may be revealed by radiographic examination. They may be used in accordance with contractual specifications.
Radiographs for evaluation are to be compared with these reference radiographs for classification on the basis of the category and severity level of the discontinuity. These reference radiographs are applicable to nominal section thicknesses of 2 to 4½ in. (51 to 114 mm).
These reference radiographs consist of three separate sets as follows:
1-MV X rays and Iridium-192 radiation (called ". to 2-MeV X rays" in previous editions).
2-MV X rays and Cobalt-60 (called "gamma rays" in previous editions)-This includes cobalt-60 or equivalent isotope radiation and from 2-MV up to 4-MV X rays.
4-MV to 30-MV X rays (called "10 to 24-MeV X rays" in previous editions).
Each set is for comparison only with the radiographs produced with equivalent radiation and consists of three categories of graded discontinuities in increasing severity levels. and three categories of ungraded discontinuities furnished as examples only, as follows:
Category A-Gas porosity; severity levels I through 5.
Category B-Sand and slag inclusion; severity levels 1 through 5.
Category C-Shrinkage; 3 types:
Type 1-Severity levels 1 through 5.
Type 2-Severity levels 1 through 5.
Type 3-Severity levels 1 through 5.
Category D-Crack; one illustration D3 in pre-1972 documents.
Category E-Hot tear; one illustration D4 in pre-1972 documents.
Category F-Insert; one illustration EB3 in pre-1972 documents.
The use of this document is not intended to be restricted to the specific energy level or to the absolute thickness limits that are contained in the document title. The title is intended to be descriptive and not restrictive. The document may be used. where there is no other applicable document, for other energy levels or thicknesses. or both, for which it is found to be applicable and for which agreement has been reached between purchaser and manufacturer.
NOTE 1-The set of reference radiographs consists of the following:
Vol 1: I-MY X Rays and Iridium-192 Reference Radiographs-Set of 28 plates (5 by 8 in. (127 by 203 mm)) in a 15 by 17-in. (381 by 432-mm) ring binder.
Vol 2: 2-MV X Rays and Cobalt-60 Reference Radiographs-Set of 28 plates (5 by 8 in.) in a 15 by 17-in. ring binder.
Vol 3: 4-MY 10 30-MV X Ray Reference Radiographs-Set of 28 plates (5 by 8 in.) in a IS by 17-in. ring binder.
NOTE 2-The values stated in U.S. customary units are to be regarded as the standard.
2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Reference Radiographs SE 186 in Section V of that Code.