CPC - Boiler Water Treatment Principles and Practice: Charts and Notes for Field Use

Organization: CPC
Publication Date: 17 July 2013
Page Count: 64
scope:

Table of Contents:

  • About the Author
  • Saturated steam temperatures at various boiler pressures
  • Boiler Energy and Power Units
  • Typical gross heating values of common fuels (based on approximately 80% fuel to steam efficiency)
  • Typical energy consumption and output ratings for a fire tube boiler
  • Steam tables suitable for pressure deaerators
  • Calculating Blowdown
  • Coefficients of thermal conductivity for some heat-exchanger metals and boiler deposits
  • Types of water or steam commonly employed in most HW heating and steam generating plants
  • Commonly occurring minerals in natural MU water sources
  • Specific waterside / steamside problems affecting MPHW and HPHW boiler plants
  • Salt concentration indicators
  • Summary of waterside / steamside problems affecting LPHW and LP steam heating boiler plants
  • FW contamination from MU water
  • FW contamination from returned condensate
  • Problems associated with the final FW blend
  • Deposition of boiler section waterside surfaces by alkaline earth metal salts, other inorganic salts and organics
  • Silica and silicate crystalline scales and deposits affecting boiler section waterside surfaces
  • Iron oxide and other boiler section corrosion debris deposits
  • Boiler section corrosion problems involving oxygen, concentration cells and low pH
  • Stress and high temperature related corrosion
  • Steam purity, quality and other operational problems
  • Specification for grades of high-quality water suitable for higher pressure WT boilers
  • Practical considerations for a RW ion-exchange softener
  • Types of Internal Treatment Program
  • Carbonate Cycle Requirement Calculations
  • Phosphate-Cycle Requirement Calculations
  • A Guide to Tannin Residuals in BW
  • Carbonate-Cycle Program. BW Carbonate Reserve Requirements by Pressure and Sulfate Concentration
  • Carbonate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated FT Boilers Employing Hard or Partially Softened FW
  • Phosphate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated FT Boilers Employing Hard, Partially Softened, or Fully Softened FW
  • Phosphate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated WT Boilers Employing Hard, Partially Softened, or Fully Softened FW
  • Chelant demand (ppm product) per 1ppm substrate
  • EDTA Chelant or All-Polymer/All-Organic Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Fired WT Boilers Employing Demineralized or Similar Quality FW
  • Oxygen Solubility at Atmospheric Pressure
  • Properties of Oxygen Scavengers
  • Carbon Dioxide Evolution from FW Alkalinity
  • Amine Requirement to Reach a Stable Condensate pH
  • Amine Basicity Dissociation Constants
  • Neutralizing Amine Summary Notes
  • Some DR values for CO2, NH3 and neutralizing amines at various pressures
  • Calculating Alkalinity Feed-Rate Requirements
  • ASME Consensus table 1: Suggested water chemistry limits. Industrial watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired, drum typeMakeup water percentage: Up to 100% of feedwater. Conditions: Includes superheater, turbine drives or process restriction on steam purity
  • ASME Consensus table 2: Suggested chemistry limits. Industrial watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired, drum type
  • ASME Consensus table 3: Suggested chemistry limits. Industrial firetube, high duty, primary fuel fired
  • ASME Consensus table 4: Suggested water chemistry limits. Industrial coil type, watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired rapid steam generators
  • ASME Consensus table 5: Suggested water chemistry limits. Marine propulsion, watertube, oil fired drum type
  • ASME Consensus table 6: Suggested water chemistry limits. Electrode, high voltage, forced circulation jet type
  • Reduction in heat transfer efficiency with increase in deposit thickness, where A = iron oxides and silica, B = iron oxides, C = calcium carbonate
  • Notes

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