# CPC - Cement Manufacturer's Handbook

Organization: | CPC |

Publication Date: | 7 April 1979 |

Page Count: | 408 |

##### scope:

This unique handbook contains the most essential engineering formulas used in the cement manufacturing process.

All formulas are presented in both English and metric systems of units.

Examples are given to familiarize the reader with the usefulness of these formulas.

The book can be used as a text manual for courses in cement technology, and as a reference for solving operating problems.

The book is equally valuable for the manager supervisor, chemist, and operator as it is to the cement plant engineer.

CONTENTS

Part I. Cement Chemistry

Chapter 1. QUALITY CONTROL FORMULAS

- 1.01 Ignition Loss
- 1.02 Silica Ratio
- 1.03 Alumina·Iron Ratio
- 1.04 Lime Saturation Factor
- 1.05 Hydraulic Ratio
- 1.06 Percent liquid
- 1.07 Burnability Index
- 1.08 Burnability Factor
- 1.09 Bogue Formulas for Clinker and Cement Constituents
- 1.10 Total Carbonates
- 1.11 Total Alkalies as Na20
- 1.12 Conversion of Raw Analysis to Loss Free Basis
- 1.13 Conversion of Kiln Dust Weight to Kiln Feed Weight
- 1.14 Calculation of Total Carbonates from Acid·Alkali Titration
- 1.15 Percent Calcination

Chapter 2. KILN FEED MIX CALCULATIONS

- 2.01 CaC03 Required to Obtain a Given C3S in the Clinker
- 2.02 Two Component Mix Calculations
- 2.03 Three Component Mix Calculations
- 2.04 Four Component Mix Calculations
- 2.05 Determination of Chemical Composition

Chapter 3. KILN FEED SLURRY

- 3.01 Specific Gravity and Pulp Density of Slurries
- 3.02 Properties of Water
- 3.03 Mass of Slurry Required per Mass of Clinker
- 3.04 Slurry Feed Rate Required
- 3.05 Clinker Production for a Given Slurry Rate
- 3.06 Clinker Production per Slurry Tank Unit
- 3.07 Specific Gravity of Slurry
- 3.08 Dry Solids per Unit Volume of Slurry

Chapter 4. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED IN CEMENT MANUFACTURING

- 4.01 Chemical Compounds
- 4.02 Bulk Densities of Common Materials
- 4.03 Typical Coal Analysis
- 4.04 Typical Fuel Oil Properties
- 4.05 Typical Gaseous Fuel Properties
- 4.06 Barometric Pressure at Different Altitudes
- 4.07 Sieve Sizes
- 4.08 Coefficients of Linear Expansion
- 4.09 Properties of Air
- 4.10 Particulate Concentration in Gases
- 4.11 Selected International Atomic Weights
- 4.12 Selected Minerals and Ores
- 4.13 Classification of Minerals
- 4.14 Chemical Formula and Molecular Weight of Common Minerals

Chapter 5. FORMULA AND DATA USED IN COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS

- 5.01 Thermochemical Reactions
- 5.02 Combustion Constants
- 5.03 Heat Value of Fuel
- 5.04 Conversion from "Gross" to "Net" Heating Value
- 5.05 Analysis of Coal
- 5.06 Methods of Expressing Solid Fuel Analysis
- 5.07 Conversion of Coal AnalYSis to Different Basis
- 5.08 Typical Coal Ash Analysis
- 5.09 Fuel Ignition Temperatures
- 5.10 Percent Coal Ash Absorbed in Clinker
- 5.11 Effect of Coal Ash on Clinker Composition
- 5.12 Determination of Theoretical Fuel Consumption

Chapter 6. pH: HYDROGEN-ION-CONCENT

- 6.01 Definition of pH
- 6.02 Calculation of pH
- 6.03 Indicators

Part II Burning

Chapter 7. TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE

- 7.01 Technical Information on Kiln Equipment Chapter

8. KILN PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY (ENGLISH SYSTEM OF UNITS)

- 8.01 Amount of Feed Required to Produce One Ton of Clinker
- 8.02 Dust Loss
- 8.03 Potential Clinker Compounds and Clinker Factors
- 8.04 Theoretical Heat Required to Produce One Ton of Clinker
- 8.05 Percent of Infiltrated Air at Kiln Feed End
- 8.06 Excess Air Present in the Kiln
- 8.07 Combustion Air Required to Burn One Pound of Fuel
- 8.08 Weight of Combustion Air per Minute Entering Kiln
- 8.09 Air Infiltration at Hood
- 8.10 Cooler Air Balance
- 8.11 Products of Combustion (lb/ton)
- 8.12 Weight of Gases from Slurry (lb/ton)
- 8.13 Total Weight of Kiln Exit Gases
- 8.14 Percent Moisture in Kiln Exit Gases
- 8.15 Density of Kiln Exit Gas
- 8.16 Volume of Moist Kiln Exit Gases
- 8.17 Kiln Performance Factors
- 8.18 Results of Kiln Performance Study

Chapter 9. KILN PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY (METRIC SYSTEM OF UNITS)

- 9.01 Amount of Feed Required to Produce One Kilogram of Clinker 1
- 9.02 Dust Loss
- 9.03 Potential Clinker Compounds and Clinker Factors
- 9.04 Theoretical Heat Required to Produce One Kilogram Clinker
- 9.05 Percent of Infiltrated Air at Kiln Feed End
- 9.06 Excess Air Present in the Kiln
- 9.07 Combustion Air Required to Bum One Kilogram of Fuel (Solid or Liquid)
- 9.08 Weight of Combustion Air Required per Hour
- 9.09 Air Infiltration at Firing Hood
- 9.10 Cooler Air Balance
- 9.11 Products of Combustion
- 9.12 Weight of Gases from the Feed
- 9.13 Total Weight of Kiln Exit Gases
- 9.14 Percent Moisture in Kiln Exit Gases
- 9.15 Density of Kiln Exit Gases
- 9.16 Volume of Moist Kiln Exit Gas
- 9.17 Kiln Performance Factors
- 9.18 Results of Kiln Performance Study

Chapter 10. HEAT BALANCE (ENGLISH SYSTEM OF UNITS)

- 10.01 Heat Input from Combustion of Fuel
- 10.02 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Fuel
- 10.03 Heat Input from Organic Substance in Kiln Feed
- 10.04 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Kiln Feed
- 10.05 Heat Input from Cooler Air Sensible Heat
- 10.06 Heat Input from Primary Air Sensible Heat
- 10.07 Heat Input from Infiltrated Air Sensible Heat
- 10.08 Heat Required for Clinker Formation
- 10.09 Heat Loss with Exit Gas
- 10.10 Heat Loss Due to Moisture in Feed or Slurry
- 10.11 Heat Losses Due to Dust in Exit Gases
- 10.12 Heat Loss with Clinker at Cooler Discharge
- 10.13 Heat Loss at Cooler Stack
- 10.14 Radiation and Convection Losses on Kiln Shell
- 10.15 Heat Loss Due to Calcination of Wasted Dust Chapter

11. HEAT BALANCE (METRIC SYSTEM OF UNITS)

- 11.01 Heat Input from the Combustion of Fuel
- 11.02 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Fuel
- 11.03 Heat Input from Organic Substance in Kiln Feed
- 11.04 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Kiln Feed
- 11.05 Heat Input from Cooler Air Sensible Heat
- 11.06 Heat Input from Primary Air Sensible Heat
- 11.07 Heat Input from Infiltrated Air Sensible Heat
- 11.08 Heat Required for Clinker Formation
- 11.09 Heat Loss with Kiln Exit Gas
- 11.10 Heat Loss Due to Moisture in Feed or Slurry
- 11.11 Heat Losses Due to Dust in the Kiln Exit Gases
- 11.12 Heat Loss with Clinker at Cooler Discharge
- 11.13 Heat Loss at Cooler Stack
- 11.14 Heat Losses by Radiation on Kiln Shell
- 11.15 Heat Loss Due to Calcination of Wasted Kiln Dust

Chapter 12. TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF THREE KILN MODELS

Chapter 13. SPECIFIC HEATS, HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS AND COMPUTATIONS FOR NATURAL GAS FIRING

- 13.01 Mean Specific Heat of Clinker (Metric System)
- 13.02 Mean Specific Heat of Raw Materials (Metric System)
- 13.03 Mean Specific Heat of Exit Gas Components (Metric System)
- 13.04 Mean SpeCific Heat of Fuels (Metric System)
- 13.05 Mean Specific Heat of Water Vapor (Metric System)
- 13.06 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Heat Loss on Kiln Shell (Metric System)
- 13.07 Mean Specific Heat of Clinker (English System)
- 13.08 Mean Specific Heat of Raw Materials (English System)
- 13.09 Mean Specific Heat of Exit Gas Components (English System)
- 13.10 Mean Specific Heat of Fuels (English System)
- 13.11 Mean Specific Heat of Water Vapor (English System)
- 13.12 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Heat Loss on Kiln Shell (English System)
- 13.13 Computations for Natural Gas Firing

Chapter 14. USEFUL FORMULAS IN KILN DESIGN AND OPERATION

- 14.01 Cooling of Kiln Exit Gases by Water
- 14.02 Kiln Feed Residence Time
- 14.03 Kiln Slope Conversion
- 14.04 Kiln Sulfur Balance
- 14.05 The Standard Coal Factor, Combustion Air Requirements
- 14.06 Cooler Performance
- 14.07 Combustion Air Required for Natural Gas Firing
- 14.08 Products of Combustion on Natural Gas Firing
- 14.09 Percent Loading of the Kiln
- 14.10 Cross-Sectional Loading of the Kiln
- 14.11 Flame Propagation Speed
- 14.12 Kiln Drive Horsepower
- 14.13 Theoretical Exit Gas Composition, by Volume
- 14.14 Conversion of Specific Heat Consumption into Annualized Costs
- 14.15 Theoretical Flame Temperature
- 14.16 The "True" CO2 Content in the Exit Gases
- 14.17 Alkali Balance
- 14.18 Kiln Speed Conversions
- 14.19 Power Audit on Kiln Equipment
- 14.20 Coating and Ring Formation
- 14.21 Relationship Silica Ratio vs. Saturation Factor

Chapter 15. CHAIN SYSTEMS IN WET PROCESS KILNS

- 15.01 Chain Angle of Garland Hung Chains
- 15.02 Evaporation Rate (Wet Kilns)
- 15.03 Total Heat Transfer Surface
- 15.04 Effective Heat Transfer Volume for Evaporation
- 15.05 Chain Zone to Kiln Length Ratio
- 15.06 Length of Chain System
- 15.07 Chain Density
- 15.08 Heat Transfer Required in Chain System
- 15.09 Specific Chain System Performance Factors
- 15.10 Chain System Design for Wet Process Kilns
- 15.11 Kiln Chain Data-Round Links
- 15.12 Kiln Chain Data-Proof Coil (Oval Links)
- 15.13 Chain Shackle Data
- 15.14 Chain System Record Form

Chapter 16. KILN REFRACTORY

- 16.01 Refractory Shapes
- 16.02 Number of Bricks Required per Ring
- 16.03 Number of Bricks Required per Unit Kiln Length
- 16.04 Kiln Diameter Conversion Table

Part III. Grinding

Chapter 17. TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF GRINDING MILL

- 17.01 Technical Data of Grinding Circuit

Chapter 18. GRINDING MILL INVESTIGATION (ENGLISH SYSTEM OF UNITS)

- 18.01 Mill Critical Speed
- 18.02 Percent of Critical Speed
- 18.03 Ratio: Free Height to Mill Diameter
- 18.04 Internal Volume of Mill
- 18.05 Percent Loading of the Mill
- 18.06 Bulk Volume of Ball Charge
- 18.07 Weight of Ball Charge
- 18.08 Weight of Feed in Mill
- 18.09 Steel to Clinker Ratio
- 18.10 Bond's Laboratory Work Index
- 18.11 Power Required
- 18.12 Mill Power
- 18.13 True Specific Power Demand of Grinding Mill
- 18.14 Mill Operating Efficiency
- 18.15 Specific Surface Grinding Efficiency
- 18.16 Mill Size Ratio
- 18.17 Specific Mill Volume per Horsepower
- 18.18 Separator Load
- 18.19 Separator Efficiency
- 18.20 Circulating Load
- 18.21 Size of Grinding Balls Required

Chapter 19. GRINDING MILL INVESTIGATION (METRIC SYSTEM OF UNITS)

- 19.01 Mill Critical Speed
- 19.02 Percent of Critical Speed
- 19.03 Ratio: Free Height to Mill Diameter
- 19.04 Internal Volume of Mill
- 19.05 Percent Loading of Mill
- 19.06 Bulk Volume of Ball Charge
- 19.07 Weight of Ball Charge
- 19.08 Weight of Feed in Mill
- 19.09 Steel to Clinker Ratio
- 19.10 Bond's Laboratory Work Index
- 19.11 Power Required
- 19.12 Mill Power
- 19.13 True Specific Power Demand of Grinding Mill
- 19.14 Mill Operating Efficiency
- 19.15 Specific Surface Grinding Efficiency
- 19.16 Mill Size Ratio 219
- 19.17 Specific Mill Volume per Horsepower
- 19.18 Separator Load
- 19.19 Separator Efficiency
- 19.20 Circulating Load
- 19.21 Size of Grinding Balls Required

Chapter 20. USEFUL DATA FOR GRINDING MILL STUDY

- 20.01 Work Index for Various Materials
- 20.02 Size Distribution for a New Ball Charge in Mill
- 20.03 Grindability Factor
- 20.04 Approximate 80 Percent Passing Size in Microns
- 20.05 Screen Size Conversion to Micron Size
- 20.06 Optimum S03 Content in Cement
- 20.07 Calculations Related to Gypsum
- 20.08 Perdent Gypsum Required for Desired S03 in Cement
- 20.09 Cement Fineness
- 20.10 Heats of Hydration
- 20.11 Spray Cooling with Water

Chapter 21. GRINDING AIDS AND CEMENT FINENESS

- 21.01 Grinding Aid Solutions
- 21.02 Fineness of Portland Cement by Turbidimeter (Wagner)
- 21.03 Table of Logarithms for Turbidimeter Microammeter
- Reading 21.04 Particle Size Distribution

Part IV. Engineering Formulas

Chapter 22. STEAM ENGINEERING

- 22.01 Latent Heat of Vaporization
- 22.02 Saturated Steam Pressure
- 22.03 Enthalpy
- 22.04 Superheated Steam
- 22.05 Properties of Steam

Chapter 23. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

- 23.01 The Basic Formulas
- 23.02 Direct Current Circuits
- 23.03 Alternating Current
- 23.04 Useful Electrical Formulas

Chapter 24. FAN ENGINEERING

- 24.01 Fan Laws
- 24.02 Total Efficiency of a Fan
- 24.03 Static Efficiency of a Fan
- 24.04 Air Horsepower
- 24.05 Shaft Horsepower
- 24.06 Similar Fans
- 24.07 Fan Static Pressure

Chapter 25. FLUID FLOW

- 25.01 Viscosity
- 25.02 Kinematic Viscosity
- 25.03 Specific Weight
- 25.04 Specific Volume
- 25.05 Specific Gravity
- 25.06 Mean Fluid Velocity
- 25.07 Barometric Pressure
- 25.08 Atmospheric Pressure
- 25.09 Gauge Pressure
- 25.10 Hydraulic Radius
- 25.11 Pressure Loss in Any Pipe
- 25.12 Friction Factor
- 25.13 Poiseuille's Law
- 25.14 Reynolds Number
- 25.15 Critical Velocity
- 25.16 Total Head
- 25.17 Pressure Head
- 25.18 Velocity Head
- 25.19 Resistance Coefficient
- 25.20 Bernoulli's Theorem
- 25.21 Head Loss
- 25.22 Flow Coefficient of Valves
- 25.23 Flow Through a Valve
- 25.24 Pressure Drop Through a Valve
- 25.25 Flow Through Pipe
- 25.26 Velocity vs. Cross-Sectional Area
- 25.27 Potential Energy for Fluids
- 25.28 Total Energy of a Liquid
- 25.29 Power of a Liquid
- 25.30 Flow Through Nozzles and Orifices
- 25.31 Flow Coefficient
- 25.32 Flow Through Pipes
- 25.33 Flow Through Rectangular Weirs
- 25.34 Flow Through Triangular Weirs
- 25.35 Gas Flow Measurements
- 25.36 Pilot Tube Measurements
- 25.37 S-Tube Measurements
- 25.38 One-Point Traverse
- 25.39 Conversions of Flow Rates
- 25.40 Flow Determination with Orifice Plate
- 25.41 Ventury Meters

Chapter 26. HEAT TRANSFER

- 26.01 Heat Required for a Temperature Change
- 26.02 Conduction
- 26.03 Convection
- 26.04 Radiation
- 26.05 Nusselt Number
- 26.06 Prandtl Number
- 26.07 General Heat Transfer Equations
- 26.08 Temperature Equivalents
- 26.09 Temperature Conversion Table

Chapter 27. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

- 27.01 Gas Laws
- 27.02 Gas Law Constant
- 27.03 Avogadros Laws
- 27.04 Density of a Gas
- 27.05 Standard Condition of a Gas
- 27.06 Normal Density of a Gas
- 27.07 Molecular Weight of Gases
- 27.08 Density Changes of Gases
- 27.09 Moles
- 27.10 Volumes Changes of a Gas
- 27.11 Weight Percent of Solutions
- 27.12 Mole Fraction of a Solution
- 27.13 Molality of a Solution
- 27.14 Molarity of a Solution
- 27.15 Percent of an Element Contained in a Compound
- 27.16 Percent of a Compound Contained in a Substance
- 27.17 Weight Problems

Chapter 28. PHYSICS

- 28.01 Newtons Law of Gravitation
- 28.02 Acceleration - Force
- 28.03 Mass of a Body
- 28.04 Weight of a Body
- 28.05 Work Done
- 28.06 Power
- 28.07 Molecular Heat of Gases
- 28.08 Molecular Heat of Solids
- 28.09 Latent Heat of Fusion
- 28.10 Latent Heat of Evaporation
- 28.11 Heat of Formation and Reaction
- 28.12 Joule Equivalent
- 28.13 Temperature of a Mixture
- 28.14 Gas Mixtures
- 28.15 Gas Constant
- 28.16 Friction Coefficient
- 28.17 Moment of Force-Torque

Chapter 29. PSYCHROMETRY

- 29.01 Basic Psychrometric Equation
- 29.02 Wet Bulb Depression
- 29.03 Relative Humidity
- 29.04 Dew Point
- 29.05 Properties of Air and Water Vapor

Part V. Emission Control and Plant Equipment

Chapter 30. TEST FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

- 30.01 Data Needed for Stack Testing
- 30.02 Summary of Results
- 30.03 Calculations

Chapter 31. USEFUL DATA FOR EMISSION CONTROL

- 31.01 Molecular Weights of Selected Gases
- 31.02 Conversion Factors for Emission Rates

Chapter 32. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT

- 32.01 Drum Dryers
- 32.02 Slurry Pumps
- 32.03 Bucket Elevators
- 32.04 Belt Conveyors
- 32.05 Screw Conveyors
- 32.06 Water Pumps
- 32.07 Storage Tanks
- 32.08 Drag Chains
- 32.09 Jaw and Gyratory Crushers
- 32.10 Stacks and Chimneys

Part VI. Appendix

Section A. MATHEMATICS

- A1. Algebra
- A1.01 Exponents
- A1.02 Fractions
- A1.03 Radicals
- A1.04 Factoring
- A1.05 Scientific Notations
- A1.06 Logarithms
- A1.07 Determinants
- A1.08 Quadratic Equation
- A1.09 Powers of Ten
- A1.10 Powers and Roots
- A1.11 Fractions and Decimal Equivalents
- A2. Trigonometry
- A2.01 Right Triangle
- A2.02 Any Triangle
- A3. Statistics
- A3.01 Standard Deviation
- A3.02 Variance
- A3.03 Coefficient of Variation
- A3.04 Relative Frequency
- A3.05 Geometric Mean
- A3.06 Least Squares
- A3.07 Coefficient of Correlation
- A4. Finances
- A4.01 Compound Interest
- A4.02 Total Annual Cash Flow
- A4.03 After Tax Profit
- A4.04 Straight Line Depreciation
- A4.05 Double-Declining Balance Depreciation
- A4.06 Sum-of-Years Digit Depreciation
- A4.07 Sixth-Tenth Factor
- A4.08 Value of Investment After Depreciation
- A4.09 Return on Investment
- A4.10 Simple Compound Interest
- A4.11 Present Worth
- A4.12 Equal Payment Series Compound Amount
- A4.13 Compound Interest Factors
- A4.14 Discounted Cash Flow Factors
- A4.15 Deposit Calculation
- A5. Safety Formulas
- A5.01 Accident Frequency Rate
- A5.02 Severity Rate
- A5.03 Safety Performance
- A6. Plane and SoUd Geometry
- A6.01 Rectangles
- A6.02 Parallelogram
- A6.03 Triangle
- A6.04 Circle
- A6.05 Circular Sector
- A6.06 Circular Segment
- A6.07 Circular Ring
- A6.08 Ellipse
- A6.09 Parabola
- A6.10 Polygon
- A6.11 Trapezoid
- A6.12 Catenary
- A6.13 Cube
- A6.14 Cylinder
- A6.l5 Pyramid
- A6.l6 Cone
- A6.l7 Frustum of a Cone
- A6.18 Sphere
- A6.l9 Segment of a Sphere
- A6.20 Sector of a Sphere
- A6.21 Torus
- A7. International System of Units
- A7.01 Base Units
- A7.02 Supplementary Units
- A7.03 Derived Units
- A7.04 Prefixes

Section B. CONVERSION FACTORS

- B1. Linear Measures
- B2. Weights
- B3. Area
- B4. Volume
- B5. Specific Weights and Volumes
- B6. Flow Rates and Speeds
- B7. Pressure
- B8. Work, Power, and Force
- B9. Power
- B10. Heat
- B11. Pressure Conversion to SI Units
- B12. Viscosity
- B13. Metric Standard Units