CRC - Characterisation of Radiation Damage by Transmission Electron Microscopy
|Publication Date:||21 November 2000|
Our motivation for writing this book was two-fold. First, no existing book provides a complete and detailed description of the TEM techniques which have been developed for characterization of small point-defect clusters and other fine-scale radiation damage microstructures. Several good books cover the general theory and practice of transmission electron microscopy (e.g. Hirsch et al 1967, Williams and Carter 1996), but none describes fully the range of techniques considered here. These books do of course cover many topics, especially diffraction theory, in more detail than is possible in this book. Second, we fear that important lessons from the past, especially about some of the inherent difficulties and limitations of some of the techniques, are in danger of being forgotten.
We hope for these reasons that this book will be of practical use to microscopists working in the field of radiation damage. Several of the techniques described should also be useful more generally, in applications where it is necessary to characterize fine-scale, complex microstructures. We will show, for example, some studies of ion-implantation damage in semiconductors and flux pinning defects in superconductors.
We are indebted to a large number of our friends and colleagues with whom we have worked over the years. We would mention particularly Colin English, Ian Robertson and Hiroshi Fukushima. We are grateful to Ian, Hiroshi, Brian Eyre, Michio Kiritani, Murray Gibson, Bob Birtcher, Charles Allen, Stephen Pennycook, Paul Okamoto and Robin Sch¨aublin who all contributed original micrographs.
Most of our own research and publications in this field comes through our association with many talented and hard-working graduate students and postdoctorates over the past 20 years. For this we wish to thank Mike Bench, TomBlack, TimChandler, Ty Daulton, Marcus Frischherz, Graham Hardy, Simon King, Phil Knight, Bill Lee, Alison Nicol, Peter Othen, Jonathan Perks, Ian Robertson, Martin Robinson, Barry Shepherd, Brad Storey, Czes Pienkowski, John Vetrano, Bob Wheeler, and Yong Yan.
Some of the material, particularly in chapters 2-5, has been published in a similar form in a review by one of the authors (Jenkins 1994). We are grateful to Elsevier Press for permission to reproduce this material here. Many other figures have been taken from the literature, and we are grateful to the various publishers for permission to use these. The sources of the figures are stated in figure captions. We are also grateful to our home institutions, the Department of Materials at the University of Oxford and the Materials Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, for support in this and past endeavours during our frequent mutual visits. Funding support for MAK has come primarily from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science.
Finally, we thank our families, especially our long-suffering wives Felicity and Stephanie, for their encouragement and support.