Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Soils
|Publication Date:||1 March 2014|
|ICS Code (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works):||93.020|
This standard covers two laboratory test methods for measuring the magnitude of one-dimensional wetting-induced swell or collapse of unsaturated soils and one method for measuring load-induced compression subsequent to wettinginduced deformation.
Test Method A is a procedure for measuring onedimensional wetting-induced swell or hydrocompression (collapse) of reconstituted specimens simulating field condition of compacted fills. The magnitude of swell pressure (the minimum vertical stress required to prevent swelling), and free swell (percent swell under a pressure of 1 kPa or 20 lbf/ft2) can also be determined from the results of Test Method A.
Test Method B is a procedure for measuring onedimensional wetting-induced swell or collapse deformation of intact specimens obtained from a natural deposit or from an existing compacted fill. The magnitude of swell pressure and free swell can also be determined from the results of Test Method B.
Test Method C is a procedure for measuring loadinduced strains on a reconstituted or intact specimen after the specimen has undergone wetting-induced swell or collapse deformation.
In Test Method A, a series of reconstituted specimens
duplicating compaction condition of the fine fraction of the soil
in the field (excluding the oversize particles) are assembled in
consolidometer units. Different loads corresponding to different
fill depths are applied to different specimens and each specimen is
given access to free water until the process of primary swell or
collapse is completed (Fig. 1) under a constant vertical total
stress (Fig. 2). The resulting swell or collapse deformations are
measured. This test method can be referred to as
Test Method B is commonly used for measuring onedimensional
wetting-induced swell or hydrocompression of individual intact
samples. This method can be referred to as single-point
Test Method C is for measuring load-induced strains after
wetting-induced swell or collapse deformation has occurred. This
method can be referred to as loading-after-wettin
It shall be the responsibility of the agency requesting this test to specify the magnitude of each load for Test Method A and Test Method B. For Test Method C, the agency requesting the test should specify the magnitude of the stress under which the specimen is wetted, and the magnitudes of the additional stress increments subsequent to wetting.
These test methods do not address the measurement of soil suction and suction-controlled swell-collapse tests. The addition of suction-controlled wetting does not constitute nonconformance to these test methods.
These test methods have a number of limitations and their results can be affected by one or a combination of factors including the effect of significant amounts of oversize particles (in Test Method A), sampling disturbance (in Test Method B) and differences between the degree of wetting in the laboratory test specimens and in the field. For details of these and other limitations, see Section 6.
Units-The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate equivalent values provided for information purposes only and are not considered standard. Test results recorded in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard. Figures depicting the test results can be either in SI units or in inch-pound units.
The converted inch-pound units use the gravitational system of units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
It is common practice in the engineering/construc
The terms density and unit weight are often used interchangeably. Density is mass per unit volume whereas unit weight is force per unit volume. In this standard density is given only in SI units. After the density has been determined, the unit weight is calculated in SI or inch-pound units, or both.
All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
The procedures used to specify how data are collected/ recorded, or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any consideration for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard