Guide for the Evaluation of Shotcrete
|Publication Date:||1 January 1994|
The purpose of this report is to present procedures that can be used to evaluate the quality and properties of in-place shotcrete.
Considerable literature is available on testing fresh concrete, concrete specimens, and in-place concrete. Procedures for the production and testing of concrete are covered by ACI and ASTM Standards. The development of in-place (nondestructive) test procedures for evaluating concrete structures has progressed to the point where the use of such procedures has become common
Procedures for in-place evaluation of shotcrete have not been well developed or widely used This may be due to the lack of understanding of the difference between shotcrete and concrete. The most important factor in producing quality shotcrete construction is the skill of the nozzleman. While ACI 506.2 requires preconstruction testing to verify a nozzleman's ability, such testing is not always done. Additionally, inspectors who are knowledgeable in shotcreting are not ordinarily available to monitor shotcrete quality. Thus, if properly skilled nozzlemen are not used, defects such as improper encasement of reinforcing steel, voids behind steel, excessive cracking caused by shrinkage, sand pockets, and defects caused by inclusions of overspray and rebound can occur.