ASTM International - ASTM C1055-03
Standard Guide for Heated System Surface Conditions That Produce Contact Burn Injuries
|Publication Date:||1 October 2003|
|ICS Code (Heating appliances in general):||97.100.01|
1.1 This guide covers a process for the determination of acceptable surface operating conditions for heated systems. The human burn hazard is defined, and methods are presented for use in the design or evaluation of heated systems to prevent serious injury from contact with the exposed surfaces.
1.2 Values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.
1.3 The maximum acceptable temperature for a particular surface is derived from an estimate of the possible or probable contact time, the surface system configuration, and the level of injury deemed acceptable for a particular situation.
1.4 For design purposes, the probable contact time for industrial situations has been established at 5 s. For consumer products, a longer (60-s) contact time has been proposed by Wu (1) and others to reflect the slower reaction times for children, the elderly, or the infirm.
1.5 The maximum level of injury recommended here is that causing first degree burns on the average subject. This type of injury is reversible and causes no permanent tissue damage. For cases where more severe conditions are mandated (by space, economic, exposure probability, or other outside considerations), this guide may be used to establish a second, less desirable injury level (second degree burns), where some permanent tissue damage can be permitted. At no time, however, are conditions that produce third degree burns recommended.
1.6 This guide addresses the skin contact temperature determination for passive heated surfaces only. The guidelines contained herein are not applicable to chemical, electrical, or other similar hazards that provide a heat generation source at the location of contact.
1.7 A bibliography of human burn evaluation studies and surface hazard measurement is provided in the list of references at the end of this guide (1-16).