ASTM International - ASTM D2922-04
Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
|Publication Date:||1 May 2004|
|ICS Code (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works):||93.020|
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the total or wet density of soil and soil-rock mixtures by the attenuation of gamma radiation where the source and detector(s) remain on the surface (Backscatter Method) or the source or detector is placed at a known depth up to 300 mm (12 in.) while the detector(s) or source remains on the surface (Direct Transmission Method).
1.2 The density in mass per unit volume of the material under test is determined by comparing the detected rate of gamma radiation with previously established calibration data.
1.3 The values tested in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound equivalents may be approximate.
1.4 It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a unit of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This standard has been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm), or the recording of density in lbm/ft3 should not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific Hazard statements, see Section 6.