ASTM International - ASTM C231-04
Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method
|Publication Date:||1 July 2004|
|ICS Code (Concrete and concrete products):||91.100.30|
significance And Use:
This test method covers the determination of the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The test determines the air content of freshly mixed concrete exclusive of any air that may exist inside... View More
This test method covers the determination of the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The test determines the air content of freshly mixed concrete exclusive of any air that may exist inside voids within aggregate particles. For this reason, it is applicable to concrete made with relatively dense aggregate particles and requires determination of the aggregate correction factor (see 6.1 and 10.1).
This test method and Test Method C 138/C 138M and C 173/C 173M provide pressure, gravimetric, and volumetric procedures, respectively, for determining the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The pressure procedure of this test method gives substantially the same air contents as the other two test methods for concretes made with dense aggregates.
The air content of hardened concrete may be either higher or lower than that determined by this test method. This depends upon the methods and amount of consolidation effort applied to the concrete from which the hardened concrete specimen is taken; uniformity and stability of the air bubbles in the fresh and hardened concrete; accuracy of the microscopic examination, if used; time of comparison; environmental exposure; stage in the delivery, placement and consolidation processes at which the air content of the unhardened concrete is determined, that is, before or after the concrete goes through a pump; and other factors.View Less
1.1 This test method covers determination of the air content of freshly mixed concrete from observation of the change in volume of concrete with a change in pressure.
1.2 This test method is intended for use with concretes and mortars made with relatively dense aggregates for which the aggregate correction factor can be satisfactorily determined by the technique described in Section 6. It is not applicable to concretes made with lightweight aggregates, air-cooled blast-furnace slag, or aggregates of high porosity. In these cases, Test Method C 173/C 173M should be used. This test method is also not applicable to nonplastic concrete such as is commonly used in the manufacture of pipe and concrete masonry units.
1.3 The text of this test method references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory information. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of this standard.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (Warning-Fresh hydraulic cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure.)